technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_abolition_of_land_restriction \n\nWisdom grows on trees: \nLand tells the farmer what to grow. \nHarvest proves it right. \n\nWhile a lord may own a garden he need not sow, weed and hoe it for himself. He lets his gardener work in harmony with the soil, and enjoys the blossoms and rich fruits that result. Sometimes, the greater wisdom is to recognise the wisdom of others, and let them do their work without direction. The gardener will find the path to the perfect garden; the lord will find the path to greatness. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_administrative_training \n\nIn life’s autumn years \nMan is brave and wise; in spring \nbrave and foolhardy. \n\nThe man who counts sacks of rice for his lord does a great service. Of greater service yet is the man who organises the life of a village, a town or a province, making sure that each has an appointed task, and each receives a just reward for his labours. When his work is perfect, no one knows that he has had a hand in any achievement. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_capitalist_production \n\nGold blinds the rich man; \nHis Summer sun is cold Winter \nIn workers’ dead souls. \n\nThe wealthy invest their wealth to create more wealth. Riches are no longer only taken from the land, but from dark factories and foundries: new ideas given solid form. The workers labour to survive, working to live another day or week. Capital must have its profits to reward the wealthy and invest anew. The peasant may leave the fields, but his new master puts a new foot on his neck. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_censorship \n\nWinter snows hide much: \nSecrets are kept until Spring, \nAnd troubled souls calmed. \n\nEven when the people do not know it, they should be grateful to the guardians who keep watch. The lives of many are hard enough without doubts and foreign thoughts. Their burdens can be eased by not being troubled by foreign ideas that cause disharmony and foster discontent with the proper order of the world. Individual ignorance is unfortunate, but sometimes it is a kindness for the whole community. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_central_reforms \n\nUnity within; \nBoldly cut the weakest links. \nThe chain does not break. \n\n When all in government work with pure intentions, the land thrives. The corrupt are rooted out, and their shame made clear for all to see. Their ill works are corrected: the people become happy, knowing that their rulers have their interests at heart. Rulers and ruled go forward, towards a better dawn. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_charter_oath \nThe wise man listens, \nTaking in much and saying little. \nA new future waits. \n\nBecause a thing is old does not mean that it is virtuous. Old poisons remain poisonous. Food spoils if not eaten, and the good becomes bad. It is wise to consider this when looking to the future, for it is the nature of everything to change. It is well to look upon what has been done, and decide whether or not it was worthy. If not, then steps can be taken to correct injustices and mistakes. If an act is still worthy, why do differently? True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_consular_court \n\nA long way from home \nThe weary traveller waits, \nConcealing his plans. \n\nUnless law applies to all, law applies to no one. The outsider who thinks himself a member of a people too mighty to be judged by any except his own is a danger to all, an outlaw indeed. All must be brought within the law; all must obey the same rules. Then there is true justice for all, foreigner and Japanese alike. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_cordial_relations \n\nIn order to survive \nThe tiny bud must open \nRevealing beauty. \n\nThe man shut away from his neighbours becomes a strange creature, and he misses much of the life of his village. Even his family will eventually shun him for his lonely, odd ways. Better then, to open the door, and share tea, conversation and prosperity of spirit. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_domain_and_the_realm \n\nThe dark and the light, \nContinuing in harmony: \nEternal balance. \n\nA well-ordered house is not divided against itself. All members of the household take satisfaction in their duties, and in the love and esteem in which they are held. When disorder and strife are beneath the roof no one sleeps comfortably. Even the neighbours will be disturbed, and may take action. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_epic_architecture \n\nThe dream of all men. \nA reality for few: \nTo be remembered. \n\nThe architecture of great castles, temples and palaces is intended to overawe and dwarf the ambitions of lesser men. Yet it is only by creating such magnificent structures that the rules of engineering are made plain, so that even greater buildings can be made by simple craftsmen. Who, then, is memorialised: the builders, or the masters? True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_foreign_affairs \n\nAs the storm rages \nHe whispers all his secrets. \nThe old carp is wise. \n\nWars are not conducted solely on the battlefield. Wars do happen without being openly declared. Wars are fought with words and ideas, even between apparent friends, because all nations wish to be pre-eminent. The strong fight as they choose. The weak fight as they may, and sometimes profess peace to hide their struggles. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_gold_standard \n\nOne man’s great treasure \nIs another’s worthless dust. \n\nLife is irony. \n\nWhen a man has money, all are willing to lend to him. When he does not, the moneylenders are reticent. Yet a man with a store of wealth can live well on nothing more than promises: he will pay, but tomorrow, never today. His creditors trust in his wealth, not necessarily in him. Honour, in the world of trade, is replaced by gold. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_kokutai \n\nWithout loyalty \nHonour is sold at market: \nA ghost on the wind. \n\nThere is a national body, a family to which all belong, with the Emperor, divinely descended and destined to rule, at the head. If all know their places within the body of the nation, and all act according to their status, and with the best interests of the whole in their hearts, then all will benefit. Duty runs in all directions throughout the body of the nation, binding all men together under the sun. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_merchant_house_selection \n\nShips bob at anchor \nFat-bellied fish on the quay \nWhich will be sold first? \n\nGiving responsibility for one kind of trade to one merchant house allows the traders to fully command their market. Freed from the burdens of competition with others, they can make the most of their opportunities, and bring benefits to all. Wealth flows everywhere, eventually. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_merchant_houses \n\nThe wise man prepares, \nToiling through his Autumn years, \nTo rest in winter. \n\nAll nations, all peoples, seek to control their own lives in things great and small. And, as trade is the lifeblood of all free nations, it is no small thing to have control of it. A friend may carry a burden for a while, but if he is a true friend eventually he allows a man to carry his own responsibilities. So it is with all things. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_private_academies \n\nNurture the tiny seed, \nWith attention it will grow. \nA forest is born. \n\nLearning is best not confined to gentlemen and monks. The poet’s words can lift the spirit; history can inspire patriotism and loyalty; a message from loved ones can move the heart; the letter from the front can bring news of honourable duty done; and factory regulations do not have to be shouted into a fool’s ear. All these are only possible when many can read and write. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_restoration_of_the_domain \n\nSpring follows winter: \nBlossoms replace the cold snow. \nA new house after storms. \n\nAfter a storm, the farmer takes stock of his farm. What needs repairing is worked upon: the roof is mended, the ditches are cleared, and all is put back into order. Then, once more, the farmer returns to his proper labours, and everything grows thanks to his skilled attention. So it is with a nation and its people. The rulers must repair what is broken. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_revised_land_tax \n\nAutumn winds blow chill, \nThe master is satisfied: \nAll rice grains counted. \n\nFor the people taxes are like storms, knocking down much that has been built up over generations. For wise rulers, they are a necessary evil, taking only what is required to do what is required. Inferior lords are leeches, grown swollen on their domains’ life blood. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_sakoku \n\nOn a mountain \nThe crane sits alone, \nContemplating fate. \n\nThe virtuous man does not invite the thief and the liar into this house, nor does he walk into the village of thieves and liars. He keeps himself apart, and his virtue remains intact. Beyond the waves the wider world is full of immorality, dishonesty and dishonour. Far better then, that it is kept apart from honest men and that they are not exposed to its wrongful temptations. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_seclusion \n\nThe secret of Spring: \nThe blossom comes as it will, \nBeholder ignored. \n\nBehind closed doors, the farmer is master in his own home. He need not care that the neighbours think him old fashioned, for they cannot see or understand his respect for tradition. His family will not learn uncouth ways, for he decides what and who crosses his threshold. Within his walls, the old harmony is maintained. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_surveillance \n\nSilent and watchful, \nThe great mountain knows much \nAnd sees more. \n\nIn times of strife there is a tendency among some in government to forget their loyalties, and look to their own needs. When all is at risk, who is watching? Any man can be tempted, but it is the weak that put out their hands to grasp what they can. Rather than work for the good of all, and for the honour of performing their duties, they are seduced by thoughts of easy wealth. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_tea_ceremony \n\nCalm and considered, \nEach movement captivating: \nThe matcha is poured. \n\nAll the principles of Zen are there, in a tea cup, for a man to consider as he sips and mulls what he will say next. Every moment of the ceremony brings harmony, moments of perfection and tradition in stark contrast to the rushing changes of the modern world. And in those moments of harmony, calm contemplation and wisdom can guide serious discussions of matters great and small. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_civil_western_agenda \n\nLook to the horizon, \nA path that all would travel: \nA journey westward. \n\nSometimes the tide cannot be resisted, and a ship is swept away. The prudent navigator, though, has charts and, moreover, has learned the waters he sails. His vessel is not lost, washed ashore, or stranded on hidden sands. The wind blows, but he steers a safe course even in strange seas, because he learned to read the waves. His ship comes safe to port and all aboard are grateful. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_advanced_segment_shell \n\nAs he plummets down, \nI see my enemy’s face. \nWater’s cold embrace. \n\nThere is a race between the cunning of armourers and the cunning of gunsmiths. Both seek advantage and, for a while, each leads in the race. But their struggle is such that they are chained together, and they are doomed to cross the finish line in a deadly embrace, neither able to break the other’s will to win. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_arms_deals \n\nThe sword edge cuts deep: \nDo the dead care who struck them: \nSwordsmith or swordsman? \n\nThe forester must have an axe, the fisherman a net. A soldier must have a weapon. Only a fool goes to battle armed with hopes and dreams. If the soldier’s neighbour cannot make a gun, then a wise soldier goes to market to buy one. Wars encourage such clear thinking, and if a foreigner has what is needed, then that is where a soldier will go. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_carbine_cavalry \n\nWeapon and soldier, \nTogether as one spirit: \nHarmony achieved. \n\nThe power of the rifle on the battlefield is in striking men down at a distance. The power of the horseman is to move like the wind. Together, they give the aggressive general a chance to make life a living hell of bullets fired from almost anywhere. There is no rest for an enemy harassed by such a force. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_common_shell \n\nOver calm waves gulls cry. \nThe shell bursts through the peace: \nDeath calls from the deep. \n\nNaval warfare becomes a matter of mathematics, telescopes and precision. A single shot can decide the fate of many, if it lands in the right place. Courage is no defence, for a shell will not rebound from a warrior’s sword. It will plunge on, and bring destruction to the brave and cowardly, equally uncaring about either. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_copper_plating \n\nThe turtle is wise: \nHe knows when to swim away. \nThe battle begins. \n\nOld men walk slowly: their years weigh them down even as their honour and wisdom fill their hearts and minds. Eventually, they can no longer move against the tide, and age is swept away. So it is with ships, unless strange foreign “science” is used. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_gatling_gun \n\nAngry metal flies: \nSting my mortal flesh and bone. \nMy heart’s blood drains away. \n\nGood intentions often go astray: gods and demons are equally amused by mankind’s aspirations. That a weapon of peace, intended to save lives in great numbers, does enormous slaughter must surely make some spirit of war smile. Otherwise, even the most stony-hearted of warriors would weep to see so much courage laid low, and hopes scattered to the winds, by one machine. What mercy or honour is there in the leaden drumbeat? True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_imported_guns \n\nLightning flickers, \nThe night sky aflame and bright. \nThe cherry tree falls. \n\nA man wakes to find that all he thought solid has faded, like mist. All that he held to be unchanging has, like potter’s clay, been moulded by new hands. In such a world, the man takes stock of what is new and then, once it has been found useful, he grasps it tightly: the new must become the familiar, no matter what the source, no matter what the cost. If this is not done, what will his neighbour do? True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_improved_defences \n\nWind blows old banners \nShaking the dark winter clouds. \nBelow, new stones wait. \n\nNew, foreign weapons can smash aside wood, stone and men. Guns do not care about honour or the spirits of the land: all are gone in a flash. But the foreigners have also had a long time to learn how to defeat the new guns, how to turn aside their destructive wrath. They have also learned the best ways of placing guns to make attacking a fortress difficult. It is wise to study these new methods, and give Japanese courage a new home. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_iron_plating \n\nMighty dragon’s scales, \nStronger than ancient stones: \nHis greatest weapon. \n\nIt may not seem like much, but a hand’s width of iron from a new-fangled factory helps separate victory from defeat. One shot that does not penetrate may be enough, if the fiery reply then brings death to the assailant. But iron security will not guarantee victory: it lets brave men show their bravery and do their duties, no more than that. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_kneel_fire \n\nTogether they fire, \nBound by sacred brotherhood. \nDivided they fall. \n\nWith a new gun in every hand, a modern regiment looks fierce and proud. Yet if the men cannot fire in a disciplined way, what use are the modern guns? When all fire together, few can stand before them. And so modernity must have purpose, or it is a meaningless affectation. The dictates of fashion will kill the fools who follow them. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_late_line_infantry \n\nOur men stalk the land: \nThe very mountains tremble. \nNone stand against us! \n\nWhen the army is a noble calling for all, when all mothers are proud to see their sons in uniform, and when all children sing patriotic songs, then the cloth of state is woven strongly. A land where this is true will never lack for soldiers to stand upon the ramparts. It will never lack the respect of others. Its ruler’s words will be heard in the councils of the world. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_modern_army \n\nDo not look behind: \nLike Winter dusk, the past fades. \nNow bayonets gleam. \n\nThe bow must be put aside, and the spear broken. A new army uses new weapons, and must work together in new ways to achieve victory. Officers still carry swords, but now they must carry booklearning as well as honour in their hearts. Only duty and courage remain: the unchanging watchwords of soldiers from the dawn of the world. As night falls, what else remains? True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_modern_rifles \n\nDeath, unlooked for, \nReaches across the open field. \nStill eyes stare at clouds. \n\nThe swordsman learns his art over many years: even the simplest of cuts. Death has meaning when it must be thought upon, the outcome is uncertain, and the enemy has a face, a name and a family. The rifle strikes from afar, after only a day’s lessons. The target’s courage and honour do not matter to the rifleman. He sees only an enemy uniform, impudently in the wrong place. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_ramming \n\nThe little stream \nWinds its way down the mountain. \nCracks begin to show. \n\nThere is courage in ordering “full speed ahead” and holding to a course against the enemy, come what may. It is not a thing lightly done, but it is honest and worthy of a warrior. There is no ambiguity in the act, whatever the result. All have seen a duty done, in the old way, in a regrettably modern setting. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_rifled_cannons \n\nDeath is in the air: \nI am companion and prey. \nThe dark crow beckons. \n\nOnce it was the height of skill and bravery to close with an enemy and board his vessel. The clash of blades, the splash of blood in the water: these marked a warrior’s courage at sea. No longer: death strikes from afar, and warrior cunning is replaced by science and numbers. The cannon does not care that brave hearts beat aboard the target. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_sabre_cavalry \n\nProud horse, head tossing, \nCarries death upon his back. \nThe rider tames the colt. \n\nThe modern way is a new way of warfare, but old lessons still apply. There is a point in many battles when the enemy, having made a stand, must be shocked into retreat and rout. The soldier who can fire, fire and fire again has the advantage over the man who must fire and carefully reload. In this, he is no different to the archer who fires with skill. Both men terrify their lesser foes. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_school_of_shinobi \n\nEmbrace the darkness: \nThen you are truly ninja, \nDeath’s unseen servant. \n\nPolitics is both open and shadowed. In the shadows the rules are the same, but different tools are used. The clever assassin sharpens his blade rather than his tongue, but he shows the same lack of mercy and the same acceptance of fate. Invisibility is not immortality, but the assassin accepts this when he walks into the night. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_segment_shell \n\nAt the water’s edge \nThe cold snow washed away \nTo reveal nothing. \n\nIn the modern world arguments are not settled face to face with honest swordsmanship or cunning debate. Instead, the cannons speak, and all words are drowned by the crash and bright terror they bring. A stout-hearted, a weather eye and a ready tongue avail a sailor nothing when even the fish die of despair. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_shih \n\nTo become master,\nYou must overcome weakness. \nCast aside all fear. \nStep gladly into the dark. \nAnd greet death as an old friend.\n\nThe great leader understands that warfare is about more than battles and armies. He considers government, trade, foreign influence and much else besides when contemplating his actions. In this way, he sees advantages in the chaos of war, and uses them. He does not fear its disorder. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_shipyard_research \n\nWild waves lash cold iron. \nDeadliest of enemies: \nThe treacherous sea. \n\nA foolish man is given a strange, powerful sword, and uses it in battle until it shatters. A wise man is given the same sword, and wonders how it is made. He does not rest until he understands the blade, and all that has gone into making it. Then he returns home, and his friends benefit from his new knowledge. A warship is a sword in the hand of an admiral, but it must be kept sharp. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_suppression_fire \n\nBullets fill the air, \nNo man can struggle forward: \nRetreat or die. \n\nIf a man spends his time in battle cowering in a ditch, behind a wall, or the dead bodies of his comrades, he might as well have stayed at home. He cannot do his duty; he cannot kill his enemy. Therefore, firing at the enemy is virtuous, even if they are not killed. Their worth as soldiers will die, even as they live. True
technologies_long_description_boshin_military_torpedo_upgrade \n\nIn the deep water \nThe dragon is deadliest: \nFire, death and silence. \n\nExplosives below the waterline will always bring fear to ships’ captains. No ship can survive for long when foundering in battle. When the explosive hunt them out from afar, like steel sharks bringing death, then such torpedoes are truly fearsome! Such inventions are not the work of gentlemen or warriors, even as they used by gentlemen and warriors. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_admin_direct_land_tax \n\nTaxed like so much gold, \nAnother commodity: \nThe fruits of autumn. \n\nLand is easy to tax. It cannot be hidden away from the vigilant eyes of an inspector, even by the most cunning of village elders. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_admin_police_office \n\nOrder is vital. \nThe wolves always hunt the deer; \nThe crane always flies. \nLacking order, chaos rules: \nSummer turns to chill winter. \n\nAs well as watching the people, a wise ruler also watches the watchmen. He keeps them from straying from the path of virtue. Where honest men rule, all benefit. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_admin_provincial_officials \n\nAll men have a price \nAnd many bury it deep: \nA seedling smothered. \n\nA wise ruler knows that his best men have a greater capacity for evil, simply because of their talents. Harnessing their talents, and directing them correctly, is a mark of leadership. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_core_chinese_learning \n\nAs night follows day \nAccept another’s wisdom, \nWisest of the wise! \n\nThe clever man looks at his cup, and admires the workmanship; perhaps he treasures it for its beauty. Then he drinks the tea and is refreshed. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_core_poetry_and_literature \n\nUnbound and silk-soft, \nA petal on a spring breeze: \nEvery poet’s soul. \n\nTo crush an enemy on the field of battle is a great thing. To kill hope in an enemy heart with a few well-chosen words may be equally useful. And what could the sadness of a poet’s vision do to a foe’s spirit? True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_core_rice_loans \n\nSwords drawn in anger: \nOne grain of rice miscounted. \nBellies groan afresh. \n\nFood in the hungry belly will be repaid a thousand fold, but later when times are better. Such a deal seems sensible to the farmer when times are bad, the granaries echo at harvest, and the rats eat each other. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_core_tang_military \n\nLand and warriors: \nA lord’s astounding value, \nBeyond golden price. \n\nEven the bravest warrior cannot eat his reputation. Practicality demands a full bowl of rice, a holding of land, and some honest peasantry to support the man. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_core_taoist_thinking \n\nPut aside the Tao \nIn hope of grasping the Tao. \nIt will help a bit. \n\nCompassion, humility and moderation are all very well in their place, and will give the warrior the air of a gentleman. Yet the gentleman who does not keep his sword to hand, and well sharpened, will one day rue his moderation. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_core_tax_quota \n\nOn a sea of gold \nThe ship of state floats upward. \nThe rowers’ backs bend. \n\nHope for the future moves men’s hearts more than fear of its coming. With hope, tomorrow’s dawn is always brighter, and tomorrow’s labours a little lighter. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_core_todofuken \n\nHis life’s work taken \nTo buy a pretty trinket. \nBroken: the poor man. \n\nMore than swords, more than warriors’ honour, more than blood, more than death, war feeds on money. Those who learn this can triumph in the face of courage. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_core_way_of_chi \n\nFirm footing supports \nThe mighty bannered tower \nAnd a good man’s life. \n\nAnything done with sincerity, from the centre of a man’s being, be it a life lived, a castle built, or a song sung, will be successful. Wise rulers know this, and strive to be true in all their judgements. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_development_clan_identity \n\nA chance to belong: \nA joy afforded to few, \nWelcome as the spring. \n\nFew things bind men more tightly than brotherhood and family. Deceit in war is one thing, but to betray a father or son is beyond reason! True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_development_court_of_pleasure \n\nA woman’s embrace: \nAs gentle as summer rain. \nLoyalties are tested. \n\nNo matter how honest and true a man may think himself, when beauty is involved thoughts fly from his head and manly considerations take the reins away from good sense. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_development_sumo_retainers \n\nStrength without anger: \nPower within the circle, \nDignity without. \n\nIn sumo the gods are honoured as champions battle, and their victories reflect well on their patrons and masters. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_loyalty_keppan \n\nLet the dark blood flow, \nFor within there is honour: \nAnd honour is life. \n\nA man’s given word should be his bond, binding him in loyalty, faith and duty. A blood oath binds those who swear it as close as brothers, but will a family of words and blood prove true? True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_loyalty_kishomon \n\nLoyalty through fear: \nNaught but a worthless trinket. \nRespect is best earned. \n\nPurchasing loyalty is never a certain route to success, but bind the good man to your cause with silken ropes of honour and he will move the heavens. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_province_animal_husbandry \n\nA tree in blossom. \nNot every bloom is beautiful; \nSome are small, less bright. \nIt is wise to prune these back: \nLet the strong flourish anew. \n\nA proud warlord takes pleasure in the beauty of his horses, the swiftness of his hawks and the fierceness of his hunting dogs. All reflect well on his stewardship. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_province_iron_manufacturing \n\nThe mountain is strong. \nIt knows nothing of terror: \nA soul of iron. \n\nIron tools in iron peasant hands make short work of even the most difficult of tasks. If they do not, the peasants go hungry. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_province_plough_and_oxen \n\nTo share a burden, \nEases the heaviest weight: \nThe harvest gathered. \n\nBy yoking the beast to the plough the peasant can do more, and bring more land into productive use. With extra land under the plough, the lord’s wealth increases. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_religion_calligraphy \n\nHis brush is nothing, \nAn extension of the man. \n\nThe crane soars higher. \n\nThe stroke of a brush can cut to the heart of any matter, like the sword in the hands of a master. A message of beauty can also carry terrible weight. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_religion_ceremony_and_ritual \n\nThe ritual brings peace: \nUnspoken, ancient, potent. \nIt should be revered. \n\nAn act as simple as taking tea can show sincerity. Proper behaviour eases any social awkwardness, and allows discussion between social unequals. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_civil_religion_confucianism \n\nThe power of belief \nResides not in words or thoughts: \nHappiness blossoms. \n\nIf a ruler acts properly, then people are given an exemplar to emulate and admire. The whole community grows and prospers if all have respect and justice at the hands of their masters and fellows. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_attack_mastery_of_attack \n\nArmour shows weakness; \nKeen action earns victory. \nLet the great storm rage! \n\nWhen attacking, do not let the enemy rest. If your troops are tired, remember that his are exhausted and disheartened, for defence always saps the strength of a man. A man fighting in his own courtyard is already beaten. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_attack_strategy_of_attack \n\nO brave general! \nAttack regardless of odds; \nPower knows no fear. \n\nDo not strike where the enemy is strong. Strike where he is weak, and let him feel uncertainty and fear. By the time he has learned of the blow, you will be far away and enjoying his sake. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_bow_bow_expertise \n\nThe crane soars higher: \nDestination is nothing; \nThe flight, everything. \n\nThe bowman treats his bow with care, his best friend in battle. He selects the arrows for their true line, and he selects his target with respect. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_bow_kyujutsu_mastery \n\nOne in rivalry, \nThe target and the arrow: \nUnited at last. \n\nMastery of the bow takes long years of practice, but once attained it gives a man the power of life and death over anything within arrow’s flight. Such power should be used with wisdom. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_bow_way_of_the_bow \n\nSwift as the north wind, \nLight as the white crane’s feather, \nDeadly as the snake. \n\nTo stand in the stirrups at full gallop, release the shaft, and hit a target dead centre is the epitome of skill. To do this and consider the actions of the enemy, shows mastery of oneself, the ultimate goal of a warrior. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_core_budo \n\nLook inside yourself: \nThere you will find victory. \nThe lotus blossoms. \n\nWarriors should be sudden, like a blazing fire, and steadfast, like the mountains. They should flow like water, and move in a rushing storm, like the wind. In these things, their enemies will be defeated. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_core_bushi \n\nVictor and vanquished: \nBoth little more than autumn dew, \nOn the leaf of time. \n\nTo be a samurai is a position of honour, but long years spent learning all there is to know about being a samurai show even greater worth. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_core_bushido \n\nThe warrior’s way: \nThe wild rivers embrace it, \nEven the earth knows it. \nPermanent and unchanging, \nDeath before dishonour. \n\nA poet walks in the forest and sees the sunlight, streaming through the trees. A monk sees the spirit in every tree. A peasant walks in the forest and ends his journey with supper. A warrior picks his killing ground. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_core_koryu \n\nWith a single step, \nYour journey truly begins. \nBut there is much to be done. \nThe path is a long lifetime. \nNot just a destination. \n\nThe warrior does not just hold his weapon and hack about hopefully. He has used wisdom, and practiced long years before he strikes an enemy with sincerity. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_core_old_way_mastery \n\nTo become master, \nYou must overcome weakness. \nCast aside all fear, \nStep gladly into the dark, \nAnd meet death as an old friend. \n\nMastery is not posturing to impress a judge in a tournament. It is a practical matter: the business of killing quickly and honourably. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_core_samurai_code \n\nTo live by the code, \nYou must also die by the code. \nEmbrace winter’s chill. \n\nThe samurai who goes forwards in battle, seeking out an enemy of equal worth to slay, does his lord a great service. If he lives through the day, counts his fallen foes, and lives to fight again, he should be prized. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_core_samurai_way \n\nTo walk the true path \nSacrifice is essential. \nAutumn leaves descend. \n\nThe way of the samurai is the resolute acceptance of death. A dead man has no fears, and can lose nothing more, for he is already dead even if he still walks among the living. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_core_the_old_way \n\nRespect the old ways; \nThey have crafted who you are: \nA warrior of stone. \n\nThere are many roads from the swordsmith to the battlefield, not all of equal length. The clever student listens to the master who has walked on before him. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_defence_mastery_of_defence \n\nBe as the mountain: \nImmovable, unchanging. \nThat is true defence. \n\nIn defence be without form. Without form, the attacker cannot judge your intentions, and you are not set on any one path. All ways are open to you, and this is mastery. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_defence_strategy_of_defence \n\nLike an avalanche, \nThe tiger watches and waits. \nThe light: extinguished. \n\nLet the attacker make his mistakes. Let his frustrations master him. When the moment is right, his men will fall like ill-stacked shogi pieces. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_general_forms_of_the_earth \n\nOld man, hooked nose, \nCunning in his words and sword. \nFly away, tengu! \n\nA wise general, like an exile or fugitive, listens to everyone and weighs their words. One day general, exile and fugitive will make use of what they have learned, and some will gain glory. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_general_the_nine_transformations \n\nWith understanding \nComes glory and victory, \nAnd sake after. \n\nA general who understands battle and all its many aspects does not need to shout. He is always in the right place at the right time, so that his words carry to those who need to hear them. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_horse_form \n\nAlone, man is weak: \nThere is power in numbers. \nThe forest knows this. \n\nOne horseman is the eyes of a general; a thousand his fist, clenched and ready to strike. The wise commander keeps his cavalry close, and uses them with discretion. True
technologies_long_description_gempei_military_horse_horse_mastery \n\nIn summer’s gold fields, \nBeast and master become one: \nFormless and perfect. \n\nTo use cavalry without understanding is to throw a stone into a pond. There is a splash, but the stone disappears, and the ripples move but a short time. A bad cavalry charge is like the stone. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_calligraphy \n\nThe art of writing beautifully demands careful contemplation and flowing control from its students. The brush shows the inner spirit of the writer, and the inner character of a man can be seen by those with eyes to read, with understanding, his written characters. A cultured man, one who writes even the simplest message with care and respect for the recipient, will be well regarded. The proper respect shown to friend and foe alike will have a positive effect on diplomatic activities. \n\nHistorically, Japanese calligraphy was based on the Chinese form, but it soon developed into its own distinct, beautiful style. Its development was largely due to three men, Ono no Tofu, Fujiwara no Sukemasa and Fujiwara no Yukinari. Ono no Tofu went on to become one of Japan’s most famous calligraphers and his career spanned the rule of three emperors. His life’s work is summed up by this story: Ono no Tofu was walking along a riverbank in the rain when he spotted a small tree frog trying to jump up to the leaf of a willow tree. The little frog tried and tried and kept on trying until, eventually, it succeeded and disappeared into the branches of the tree. The frog’s perseverance inspired Ono no Tofu to continue with his studies, and he became one of the greatest calligraphers of history. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_epic_architecture \n\nA daimyo’s castle is his home and his fortress, stamping his authority on the landscape. Just as importantly, it is also his palace: the setting to show his grandeur and gravitas when meeting friends, dignitaries and rivals. The quality of the building sends an important message to friends and foes alike. Focusing on the aesthetic qualities of a building, as well as its strength, harks back to an earlier, more peaceful time, perhaps with the implicit promise that the daimyo will see to it that they return. Magnificent designs conjure up past peace and prosperity, and promise a better future. \n\nSengoku Jidai-period castles were largely made of wood and, because of the civil war and fire assaults, very few remain today. Castles also constantly changed as owners and their needs changed. When a daimyo conquered a new province, the castle would be altered to suit his tastes and military needs. Each castle ended up as a mixture of styles, extensions, rebuilds and more extensions, making it harder to read the original design, but easier to trace its history of building work! True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_tax_reform \n\nFarming is a harsh, unrelenting and threadbare existence, particularly when you are taxed on your harvest, the land you work, and the home you live in. Sometimes, you are expected to pay special taxes charged to support the aristocracy. A daimyo, however, cannot tax his subjects for long before they have nothing left, or turn rebellious. Tax reform allows rice, gold, physical labour or, indeed, almost anything else, to be used to pay a tax account. All are equally valid, and everyone can now pay properly! \n\nIn medieval Japan the peasantry were subject to crippling taxes on the land they worked, their produce and their homes. They also paid “emergency” taxes on top as they were required for special projects. Takeda Shingen (1521-1573) introduced tax reforms that applied to nearly everyone from religious temples to samurai families. He also replaced corporal punishment for minor offences with a system of fines. Everyone had to pay something, which was at least a little fairer. He was not, however, a man over-blessed with kindness or fairness, and was infamous for owning two large cauldrons, used when needed to boil those who crossed him! True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_tea_ceremony \n\nThe tea ceremony is a symbol of sophistication and taste, and embodies the principles of Zen. Everything carefully reflects the host and his standing, and the ceremony itself has an etiquette that must be followed. The elegance of the ceremony is a mark of the culture and civilized standards of a daimyo: the man’s honour is increased by this art. The tea ceremony also has a positive effect on the happiness of the population. \n\nThe tea ceremony is a graceful act, and each movement naturally flows into the next, with every moment of the ceremony set before a guest arrives. Guests are seated on tatami mats in the tea house, and then all the tea-making equipment is carried in and arranged. Once everything is laid out, the implements are purified with a silk cloth, hot water is poured into the bowls, and the tea mixed with a whisk, which has in turn been carefully warmed. Tea is served in strict order of seniority, and even the process of clearing away is a regulated part of the ceremony. Done correctly, however, it serves to put everyone in a contemplative and calm state of mind, perfect for serious discussions of great matters. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_todofuken \n\nA daimyo who wishes to hold his lands must be prepared for war with one hand and maintain peace with his other. Laws and administrators keep the people in order and, if such laws are fair and just, then they will also be content with their rulers. A wise daimyo establishes a hierarchy of commissioners, councillors, tax collectors, secret police and magistrates. Each answers to his superior for his conduct, leaving the daimyo and his advisors to consider strategy and policy. \n\nBefore the Sengoku Jidai, Japanese laws were chiefly concerned with governing the behaviour of the imperial court. The peasantry were largely ignored, and left to suffer or thrive under the landowners, who enforced their own laws and punishments as they wished. As the daimyo took power, new laws were created to cement the status of the warrior class. The Muromachi clan were rather cunning in their new laws, and introduced the idea of group responsibility: an entire community could and would be punished for the wrongdoing of one person. Families, neighbours and acquaintances would all suffer. This had the benefit of setting everyone to watch each other, suppressing many rebellions by the lower orders. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_traditional_building \n\nIn times of war, buildings need to be strong, sturdy, and defensible. Castles, however, also become homes, and status symbols. The way they are built has to change to reflect these peaceful and human aspects as being important alongside military requirements. Aesthetics and defence must work together. In turn, this means that traditional building styles are valued once more, and the cost and construction time of all building work undertaken in capitals is reduced. \n\nWith the rise of the daimyo warlords, Japan underwent a cultural change. The ruling warrior class was able to impose their values on Japanese culture though their patronage of the arts. The architecture and art of the Sengoku Jidai stressed both honour and militaristic leanings: extravagant castles were eloquent testaments to wealth and status, whilst paintings and wall hangings depicted mighty battles. \n\nThe Edo period brought unification and peace to Japan. Once again, art changed to reflect the times: battle and heroic paintings were replaced by simple themes of everyday scenery and life. The warriors who were once patrons devoted themselves to new pursuits, such as studying religion, and the rising merchant class became the new patrons. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_way_of_chi \n\nThe wisdom to rule well is given to few men. Those who have it quickly pass into legend, remembered for all eternity. A man must not only learn the way of the warrior but also how to govern in peace. No community can exist in eternal war, and the leader who can survive a peace will always prevail over one who cannot adapt. His clan’s fame will increase amongst friend and foe alike. \n\nMany of Japan’s greatest military leaders were, of course, bloodthirsty and vicious warriors, and yet they ruled their people with a justice and good sense that transcended their warrior roots. Toyotomi Hideoyoshi, for example, instigated a number of political, economic and social reforms, including the introduction of a rigid class system, land surveys and the prohibition of arms to anyone outside the warrior class. Tokogawa Ieyasu, the most famous shogun in Japanese history, introduced laws to help control the various daimyo. He insisted that they would spend a year in the provinces they had been granted, then the next year in Edo where they could be watched. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_zen \n\nThe word “Zen” means meditation and concentration, and those who live their lives by its principles develop great self-understanding through a life of discipline and contemplation. Followers of Zen are not expected to study religious texts, as their philosophy is one of interaction. The wisdom of Zen is passed from teacher to student not through words, but through thought and feeling. Zen promotes the idea of harmony amongst the people and encourages a sense of belonging, for everyone has a defined place in the world. This philosophy lowers the likelihood of rebellions, providing everyone shares this religious conviction. \n\nZen Buddhism arrived in China in the 6th century thanks to the efforts of Bodhidharma, a monk. As Zen reached Japan the monk became known as Daruma, and his image is still instantly recognisable to most Japanese people. The “Daruma doll” is a lucky charm that grants wishes. As purchased, a Daruma doll has no eyes: the owner paints one on the face and makes a wish. Only after the wish is granted is the second eye painted. This tradition is based on the story that Daruma fell asleep while meditating, and was so ashamed that he cut off his own eyelids, resulting in a somewhat unnerving stare! As his severed eyelids landed on the ground they became tea plants, and Daruma was shown that tea would help adherents remain awake during meditation. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_loyalty_noh \n\nCulture brings balance and understanding to the warrior’s life. This is particularly true of noh theatre: as a man learns to read the subtlest of emotions on stage, he can also understand the emotions of an enemy in battle. Yet, there is also a practical side to these theatrics: the daimyo who provides his men with entertainment worthy of them can expect their respect for, and loyalty to, him to increase. \n\nActor and noh theorist Kanze Kiyotsugu developed the theatrical form during the 14th century. Noh was, and is, an entirely performance-based art. Unlike Europe, where plays could be read as well as watched for pleasure, Noh relied on stories the audience already knew, so the entire point was the skill, drama and poignancy of the actors’ performance. A skilled actor could convey great emotions with but the smallest of gestures, and this was the measure of an actor’s skill. Appearance didn’t matter: the oldest man could play a young girl if he could convey her feelings and inner character through his movements. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_loyalty_sumo_tournament \n\nThe cultural pursuits of a lord reveal much about his ability to lead men. Sumo is an excellent representation of a man’s strength and an effective way for a leader to display his power and influence to the people. Tournaments can last for days and involve many fighters: the only limits are the lord’s purse and influence! News of sumo tournaments soon spreads and a clan’s people can feel greatly uplifted as a consequence. \n\nOda Nobunaga was the first to stage a sumo event that used the now-famous ring. Before that, the spectators simply stood in a circle to mark the fight’s boundaries. Sumo tournaments were a good way for a leader to display his power and wealth to the masses: Nobunaga assembled 1,500 fighters to entertain the public during his tournament. \n\nThe origins of sumo wrestling are lost in time, as wrestling in its most basic form has been around for many generations. Heavily steeped in Shinto tradition, sumo bouts are incredibly short, but the ceremonies that precede them are lengthy and filled with religious symbolism. Even the ring itself, a clay ring filled with sand, is a symbol of the purity of Shinto. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_metsuke_secret_police \n\nEnemies within the walls concern a wise daimyo as much as those at his gates. Most men live by an honest and strict code of loyalty and honour, yet there are always the false few who have no loyalty except to their own ambitions. To guard against such insidious falsehood it is best to employ metsuke: they can weed out rebels before treachery and rebellion blossom. This requires agents of great skill, able to piece together the truth of whispers, glances and hearsay and act decisively and correctly. Training such men to follow procedures rather than rely on gut instinct will increase their skills in rooting out trouble. \n\nLaw enforcement was somewhat erratic (to put it politely) during the Sengoku Jidai, but treachery had been a constant. The Tokugawa shogunate used metsuke to investigate anyone below the rank of daimyo, seeking out, and nipping in the bud, any rebellion. The old ways of warlords and warfare could not be allowed to continue if the nation was ever to have peace. The surviving daimyos were allowed to keep their provinces, but could never tell if their own actions and those of their vassals were being monitored. Their families were kept close by the shogun, as insurance for good behaviour. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_metsuke_sword_hunt \n\nWhen everyone can carry a weapon, effective rebellion is easy. Limit the number of swords, and you may not remove rebellious feelings from men’s hearts, but they lack practical means to revolt. The sword hunt confiscates the swords of anyone who is not a samurai. The samurai themselves have a vested interest in helping because their high status as warriors is protected. Deprived of their weaponry, the lower orders become easier to suppress and, with more metsuke too, they can be watched for discontent. \n\nHistorically, the great Oda Nobunaga started the great sword hunt. He wanted to disarm the peasants and lower classes: this would make rebellion difficult, and create a clear class system where only loyal samurai could carry weapons. He also needed to stop the troublesome Ikko-Ikki from challenging his rule again. Nobunaga was so enraged by their resistance that his final crushing blow was unthinkably vicious. At the battle of Nagashima in 1574, he drove the inhabitants of Nagashima fortress into their inner buildings, constructed a giant wall around them, and fired the defences. Any man, woman or child that escaped the flames was shot: it is thought some 20,000 people perished. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_ninja_ninjutsu_mastery \n\nNinjutsu is not about “right” or “wrong”. Ninjas must put aside any thought of a code or way such as the bushido of samurai. Skill is the highest test, the greatest proof of worth and a ninja is true to himself and ninjutsu if he strives for perfection in his art. That his art is death and destruction is neither here nor there. Mastery teaches a ninja how to use the most esoteric techniques and weapons to overcome his own weaknesses. \n\nThe traditions of the ninja were closely guarded within families, passed down the generations and never mentioned to outsiders. Most ninja bands were actually extended families, skilled in the arts of subterfuge and passing themselves off as humble farmers or tradesmen in their “day jobs”. The most notable ninja groups were in the mountainous and largely inaccessible provinces of Iga and Koga. This did not stop Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582) from attacking in 1581 in an effort to exterminate them. Though he killed many ninjas, more escaped and sought protection from Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616). In return for asylum, they worked exclusively for the Tokugawas from then on. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_ninja_school_of_shinobi \n\nAll daimyo expect to be assassinated and, as they accumulate power, the chances of such a death increase. An assassin, therefore, must prepare equally thoroughly. To be a ninja is to embrace invisibility, but even for the best ill luck can spell doom and destruction. A school of shinobi prepares a ninja by anticipating the unexpected, and countering the foreseen event. Training here is extremely dangerous and intense: not everyone survives, but those who do are superbly able. \n\nAs with the samurai, family mattered to the ninjas. Your parentage determined your acceptance for training, meaning that secrets were kept within the family. As a result, there were very few true ninja families, and they could charge astronomical fees for their services. Unlike the samurai, who gave their loyalties forever, ninjas could and did work for anyone with money. This suited the daimyo, for their knowledge of a ninja’s work could always be denied! True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_province_chonindo \n\nAlthough considered to be a lower class of people than the honourable samurai, merchants are incredibly important to the clan’s coffers. Chonindo argues that the merchant class’ quest for wealth is just as honourable as the samurai quest for glory on the field of battle. The introduction of a moral code that glorifies the pursuit of profit whilst stressing the importance of thrift and frugality helps increase trade income for all provinces and encourages economic growth amongst the merchant classes. \n\nThe ethics of chonindo were developed by Ishida Baigan, a man with a particular interest in the problems faced by the merchant class. According to formal Edo ideology, merchants were considered to be one of the lowest social classes. Ishida Baigan believed that the ideas of chonindo or “the way of the townsman” were equal to that of “the way of the warrior” and no less valid to all members of society. He argued that morals transcended the class system; therefore a merchant could nurture morality in exactly the same way as a samurai. He encouraged his followers to devote themselves to the pursuit of profit whilst remaining scrupulously honest and cultivating the virtues of thrift and frugality. If merchants lived their lives according to these values, then their profit driven motive was in accord with the way of heaven. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_province_equal_fields \n\nAgriculture is key to the development of a successful clan. Armies cannot march if hungry, and peasants cannot work if starving. Investing in equal fields improves the yield of all farms in a province. Terrace farming allows use of steep landscapes for fields, where it was previously impossible to grow crops. \n\nFor all its size, Japan has remarkably little natural farmland. The rice paddies are a beautiful contrast to the country’s jagged mountainous peaks, but somewhat constrained. Every square inch has to be put to a sensible use. Rice as a crop is a good use, although the mythical origins of rice are not exactly pleasant. \n\nDuring a chance meeting Susano-Wo, the storm god, ordered Uke-Mochi, the food goddess, to give him food. To meet his somewhat boisterous demands, Uke-Mochi pulled food from her own mouth, nose and bottom. In a rage, Susano-Wo killed her, and from her corpse sprang all the basic food crops: from her ears, millet; from her eyes, rice; from her nose, red beans; from her genitals, wheat; and from her backside, soybeans. Some versions blame Tsukiyomi, the moon god, for the killing, but all myths are agreed about the unpleasant origins of soy! True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_province_kinza_mint \n\nWhile traditionalists may enjoy the cut and thrust of haggling and barter, government officials naturally prefer a trading system that can be codified, recorded and above all, taxed. The introduction of standard coinage makes the collection of taxes easier, and makes the work of a merchant easier too. Town wealth improves, with long term benefits to the ruling classes also, as wealth can always be taxed. \n\nThe Kinza Mint was located in Edo, and its most important coin was the koban, a small coin struck in 1601 at the request of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Kinza also made the oban, a larger gold coin, but as this was much more valuable than the koban, it had a limited circulation and tended to be given as a gift or used to pay rewards. Creating these intricate and beautiful coins was a hereditary business, and the families that did so worked under the watchful eye of the Tokugawa government. Before Tokugawa Ieyasu introduced this idea of standardised money, different types of coins were used all over Japan, causing endless confusion and argument amongst merchants and tax officials over their precise values. Some were made of gold while others, mostly in the countryside, were made of the less expensive copper. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_religion_essence_of_the_spirit \n\nIt requires a strong spirit and exceptional patience to become a monk. It also requires an able, educated mind to grapple with deep theological questions. A devotee of Buddha will gain wisdom and understanding of the world. The path to harmony through abandoning desire is not easy, for the desire for harmony is a desire in itself. It is not a path for the faint of heart. Education and understanding are worthwhile, though, as they increase the abilities of all monks and make it more likely that they will succeed in their given tasks. \n\nReligion in feudal Japan was a mixture of the indigenous Shinto faith, and also Buddhism, Confucianism and Christianity from overseas. Like much else, Buddhism arrived from China but was only widely adopted when the warrior class took control of the country. It was the main religion of the Sengoku Jidai, although Christianity arrived when trade with the Portuguese began; the disciplined Jesuit “warrior missionaries” were actually rather appealing to the samurai. Under the Tokugawa shogunate, however, Christianity was banned as a foreign influence. The Tokugawas then introduced neo-Confucianism as the official religion of the state: a combination of the practicality of Confucius with the spiritual and ethereal nature of Buddhism. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_religion_neo_confucianism \n\nThe adoption of neo-confucianism as the state philosophy ensures a clan's people align their beliefs with that of the Daimyo. Confucian thought comes from China, and stresses the values sincerity and being true to oneself and nature in order to reach harmony with the world. There is a proper etiquette for every occasion, and observing this shows that the harmonious hierarchy of the world is understood and supported. \n\nThe Tokugawa Shogunate promulgated neo-confucianism as a way of reinforcing the stability of society and Japan. It was intended to guide everyone by showing everyone their place in the universal hierarchy: fathers, sons, lords, vassals, and even the peasants in their fields, would have their relationships codified into a harmonious whole. Tokugawa Ieyasu had unified the country, but he needed to show that he was adept in peace as in war. The Tokugawas chose to ignore the confucianism ideal of free speech, and permitted only one orthodox school of thought in order to maintain control over all aspects of Japanese life: moral duty and the law became one and the same. The country was unified, but at a cost in freedom of thought and innovation. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_religion_scholarship \n\nScholarship demonstrates the state’s commitment to religious tenets and is an important step towards constructing important religious buildings. Religion is woven into all aspects of Japanese life: family, community, politics, art and warfare are all affected and guided by faith. The foundation of Buddhist philosophy is man’s relationship with the world and how to achieve harmony in life. The key is to understand and accept your place in the world, mirroring the harmony between heaven and earth. \n\nReligion in feudal Japan was approached very differently from other parts of the world. Each major faith was seen as a separate path to a universal sacredness, and it was not unusual for the ideas of one faith to be folded into another as required. These requirements often came from the followers of a faith, not from central authority. There was a basic pragmatism that made religion useful and central to people’s lives, a worthwhile way of living, rather than a preparation for rewards in the afterlife. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_custom_battle_tech . True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_bow_bow_expertise \n\nAdvanced training is for those who have already attained skill with the bow, and teaches them to fire with even more accuracy. Practice skirmishes and mock battles prepare men for the real thing, greatly increasing their effectiveness in battle. Training can require an archer to fire up to one thousand arrows a day, making reloading a bow a reflex, not a conscious thought: faster reload times are an important advantage over the slow and laborious process of loading a gun! \n\nHistorically, a samurai’s expertise with his bow was a good test of his mettle. The bow had been the distinguishing weapon of the samurai before the Sengoku Jidai, and even after guns arrived it was still held in high regard. Military archery was synonymous with mounted archery, whereas firing while on foot was called “civilian” archery, usually practiced away from battle. This was archery as an art: hitting a target was not nearly as important as the archer’s form. The poise and grace with which the arrow was drawn back and fired were everything; hitting and killing a target was entirely secondary. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_bow_kyujutsu_mastery \n\nA true warrior never stops learning his craft. He should strive for perfection. Only with death does his education and his personal quest come to an abrupt end. Only a foolish and arrogant man believes himself to be unbeatable. All training, all practice, improves ability and confidence in battle. Accuracy is all-important: the best shooter is useless if his arrows fall wide of the target! Speed is also improved, as a great master can have one arrow in his hand, one in the air, and one striking the target. Kyujutsu mastery schools all archers in essential skills. \n\nHistorically, Japanese bows were quite similar to medieval European bows, in particular the feared English longbow. The Japanese bow was asymmetric: far longer above the grip than below, to make it easy to use on horseback while retaining power. The bow could be swung from side to side without getting tangled up in saddle furniture. It had a composite of a wooden core, covered in layers of lacquered bamboo, making strong yet flexible, capable of shooting a wide variety of arrows. Its beautiful simplicity disguised the fact that this was a weapon that required tremendous skill, strength and grace to use effectively. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_bow_way_of_the_bow \n\nThe mind and sight of any archer must be trained, as surely as his muscles: a distant target must be recognised before it can be killed. This advanced training prepares bowmen to use fire arrows, deadly flaming missiles that can set fire to buildings, ships and people. \n\nThe bow has a long history in Japan, and before the introduction of the arquebus, it was the primary weapon used by samurai. They were expected to master the use of bow on foot and from horseback. In the latter part of the 15th century, Heki Danjo Masatsugu (1443-1502), a great warrior and teacher of kyudo or “the way of the bow” established an archery school. Most archery training at that time concentrated on mounted combat, but he taught his students how to fire a bow while standing. His revolutionary teachings were formalised and taught to ashigaru foot soldiers. As a result, they became a cheap supporting arm for samurai cavalry archers. However, the ashigaru still lacked the skill of samurai, and fired mass volleys rather than acting as sharpshooters. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_bushido \n\nThe code of bushido is an unbreakable trust between samurai and master, a guide to the ways of war, and a pattern of life to be followed. For any samurai it is simply the only way he can live and retain honour. For a daimyo it is a guarantee that his men can be trusted absolutely to obey orders or die in the attempt. With bushido the morale of units is much improved. \n\nBushido translates as “way of the warrior”; it is the collective term for the many codes of honour and ideals that dictated the samurai way of life. Bushido was not a list of universal principles, but contained many separate strands of thought, but nearly all concentrated on the relationship between the samurai and his master. Honour, sincerity, obedience to his lord and a willingness to accept death as a duty were the main foundations, but bushido as interpreted by a clan could also include rules about hygiene, or whether a samurai should indulge in dancing and poetry (opinions were split on such pursuits). True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_form \n\nForm is central to the idea of a soldier rather than a fighter: the ability to work with others as part of a unit. When men understand their place in the greater whole, their speed of movement as a body is improved. Cavalry also move as a single mass with greater effect, achieving breath-taking charges and feats of horsemanship to confound and baffle the enemy! \n\nArchery and horsemanship were always central to the samurai way. Yabusame, a kyudo (archery) ceremony to get rid of evil spirits, is still performed today, and shows the grace and deadliness of the samurai at war. The ceremony begins with a mounted archer pointing his bow at the sky and the ground to symbolise the harmony between heaven and earth. He then demonstrates his skill by riding at full gallop past a series of three targets, the mato. The sound of the arrow striking the target is said to transfer the archer’s courage to the audience; the broken parts of the target are symbols of good luck, and are signed and dated by the archer. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_heaven_and_earth \n\nSoldiers cannot fight without arms; they cannot march without shoes; they cannot do either without food in their bellies. Armies need all of these expensive items, and more, for their soldiers, and replacement soldiers too, or they cannot function for long. The wise commander therefore pays as much attention to his supplies and surroundings as he does to the battles he must fight. Improving supply efforts and the understanding of how armies fight ensures a better replenishment rate and a better ammunition capacity in the field. \n\nOnce again, Sun Tzu wrote of these basic tenets of warfare and his teachings influenced samurai generals. His consideration of “heaven” involved taking into account the effects of climate, weather and time on the outcome of a battle. “Earth” involved understanding the terrain of the campaign, and the ease of crossing it, both for attack and retreat. His recommendations were that every aspect of heaven and earth had to be considered before battle commenced. \n\nInterestingly, Sun Tzu advised sending only a single shipment of rice with any invading army. Once this was gone, he expected his men to live by organised plunder and looting, taking what they needed from the enemy. He also recommended taking the enemy soldiers and using them too as part of the invading army! True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_horse_mastery \n\nHorse mastery is a collection of hard-won lessons in the care and training of horses: it increases the utility of horses in warfare, even allowing horses to cover great distances quickly without risking their health. A horse must also be used to the shock, noise and confusion of battle before it ever faces an enemy. It must have the same steely courage as its rider. It must be trained to obey its rider and ignore its natural instincts to flee from danger. \n\nHistorically, samurai began as mounted warriors, much like the knights of western Europe: a man who could afford to risk a horse in war was likely to be one with some social status and wealth. Unlike European knights, the samurai originally fought as mounted archers and spear-armed lancers: the sword was very much an emergency-use weapon. Samurai archery was such that a rider steered his mount with his knees and could shoot with amazing accuracy. All this, of course, required equally good horses. The plains of Kanto were perfect for horse breeding, and the cavalry produced there were among the most experienced, and feared, in Japan. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_shih \n\nA wise warlord understands that warfare is about more than battles and armies. He must know the strengths and weaknesses of his own lands and men, and those of his enemies. Wars are fought in the hearts and minds of men, just as much as on blood-soaked battlefields. A wise warlord considers his government, trade, foreign influence, and much else besides when contemplating the outcome of his actions. In this way, he is better placed to see advantages in the chaos, and use them. His followers will also know this, and be willing to fight all the harder for a successful man: the cost of recruiting troops will fall, and their morale will improve. \n\nThe Sengoku Jidai was an extremely violent and unstable period of Japanese history, but, like all times of stress, it produced great men: Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu are rightly regarded as the three most influential figures of this time. Each shaped the events that lead to the eventual unification of Japan, and each understood that there was much more to warfare than merely fighting. Nobunaga built roads to increase trade and movement for his armies; Hideyoshi disarmed the peasants to prevent uprisings; and Ieyasu banned Christianity and stopped foreigners from entering the country, removing a potentially disruptive influence for good. It was foresight and leadership that enabled them to rise above the other daimyos. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_strategy_of_attack \n\nTo attack, regardless of the odds, is a mark of true courage. A general who uses the strategy of attack will have an increased charge bonus as his men follow him headlong into the heart of battle! A true warrior should always be on the attack. Bombarding an enemy with wave after wave of attackers denies them the opportunity to formulate any effective strategy. \n\nThe Battle of Hitotoribashi is one of the greatest historical examples of a leader attacking regardless of the odds: Date Terumune was murdered by Hatakeyama Yoshitsugu and his son, Date Masamune, swore revenge. He took his 7000 men and attacked Yoshitsugu at Hitotoribashi. Masamune was hideously outnumbered, as Yoshitsugu fielded some 30,000 men. Yet Masamune attacked in the name of honour! He won a decisive victory, killing Yoshitsuga and avenging his father. Masamune proved himself the better tactician, and his willingness to attack in the face of overwhelming odds marked him out as an excellent commander. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_strategy_of_defence \n\nA successful commander must know the proper times to attack, and when it is prudent to fall back in defence. Every battle ebbs and flows to its own tides: to ignore these signs is to court disaster! Those who read the signs and mount a stout defence at the proper moment will be well placed to unleash a devastating attack. This art will allow all units to better defend themselves when they are required to do so. \n\nHistorically, the samurai did not use shields like their European contemporaries, the knights. Instead, they were trained to use their swords as active defensive tools, diverting blows rather than blocking them. The katana was cunningly wrought to have elasticity as well as sharpness, so that it could withstand the shock of deflecting a blow, and then deliver a devastating counterstrike. These ideas were carried over into larger formations. Sun Tzu, the Chinese war master, who was respected by the Japanese wrote that “Invincibility lies in the defence; the possibility of victory in the attack.” True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_the_five_elements \n\nA man who understands the world around him is aware of all possibilities in that world. A general who understands the five elements and can apply his understanding will be able to exercise a more effective control over his underlings. He will grasp the essentials in any battle situation. He can apply his knowledge of the world quickly and comprehensively, making him a more effective leader. \n\nUnlike the Greek and European conceit of there being four elements of Air, Earth, Fire, and Water, the Chinese and Japanese added a fifth: the Void. Together, these were the basic building blocks of the universe. Everything was made up of one or more of these elements, and by considering them and their manifestations and effects, any intelligent person would be able to comprehend the world. This idea was also applied to more abstract concepts too, such as swordsmanship, most famously by Miyamoto Musashi (1584-1645), the sword-saint. His “Book of Five Rings” is divided into chapters for the five elements, and sought to link the philosophical to the practical matter of duelling. His book is still considered extremely useful reading, even for those whose only weapon is a corporate financial spreadsheet! True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_musket_attack_by_fire \n\nGunpowder is a dangerous weapon, to the user as well as the target. Even during manufacture, gunpowder can kill, doing terrible slaughter when it explodes. \n\nThe sulphurous, reeking gunpowder is terrifying in fire bombs. These lethal weapons are normally hurled into enemy ranks by horuku, specially trained bombers. The bombs will cause terror and chaos among the unprepared, and set fire to anything at all flammable. The larger ones are thrown by mangonels. \n\nGunpowder originated in China, and the first recorded recipes date to around the 1040s, although accounts hundreds of years older are obviously describing something very similar to gunpowder. The Mongols copied gunpowder as a result of its use by the Chinese, and they used it against Japanese warriors in the 13th Century. Kublai Khan and his Mongols were driven back by the “kamikaze” and, thanks to this divine intervention, the Japanese never seemed all that bothered about gunpowder weapons. It was only with the arrival of European traders that guns and gunpowder were re-introduced to the Japanese by a very circuitous route. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_musket_teppo_mastery \n\nA true master never accepts that he has mastered his weapon, especially when it is something new to warfare. He should always seek the best in himself and his chosen armament. Gunpowder mastery is achieved through countless hours of practice: the gunner must teach his eye to gauge distance, and allow for the effects of wind, rain, an uncooperative target and even irregularities in gunpowder and shot. Once all of these are understood, mastery will increase the accuracy of all arquebus-armed troops. \n\nDuring the Sengoku Jidai, the introduction of gunpowder and the arquebus changed warfare in Japan. Guns could be used by unskilled troops, meaning that armies were cheaper to recruit and maintain. As a result, they grew in size. The ashigaru became an essential component of clan armies, and gained in social status as permanent soldiers rather than peasants-under-arms. Japanese guns also improved as Portuguese weapons were copied and rapidly improved upon: it was a Japanese idea to add foresights to gun barrels. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_naval_mastery_of_the_waves \n\nMastery of the sea comes only from long experience, passed down and codified by naval experts. The commitment demonstrated by mastery of the waves means that constructing ships is cheaper, and that dry docks can be built, allowing new ship designs to be used. These are useful things, as a naval fleet can be used to raid rivals’ trade, launch invasions and have dominion over the sea: a warlord who can strike almost anywhere is one who is feared. \n\nFleets of the Sengoku Jidai would usually be arranged as five squadrons, with the admiral in the centre. The smaller, faster ships would be out on the edges of each squadron, so that they could move swiftly to where they were needed. Orders were issued by beating drums and using coloured flags, or lanterns as night fell. All ships, regardless of size, would be well supplied with grappling hooks so that they could take part in boarding actions. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_naval_naval_expertise \n\nAs ships and sea battles are studied, contemplated and understood, it becomes plain that there should be more to a naval engagement than a series of desperate boarding assaults. Sailors can influence the course of a battle by using their ships’ inherent abilities too. Naval expertise allows fleets to use gunpowder-based weapons, and allows the construction of fire bomb-equipped vessels too. \n\nNaval warfare usually consisted of a series of boarding actions, with ships lashed together to make a floating battlefield. As ships closed, there would be a hail of missiles to kill enemy sailors and fighters, but not much more than that. Fire weapons were popular because they could set vessels alight and, hopefully, roast at least some of the opposition before the boarding action. With the advent of guns, arquebuses and larger pieces were carried aboard and used, but they were still only a prelude to the serious business of fighting by boarding. It is worth speculating that this kind of close combat suited the samurai temperament because it gave the chance for individuals to seek out and defeat worthy opponents. Although much more practical, simply sinking an enemy in long-range combat lacked this virtue! True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_naval_way_of_the_sea \n\nThe first step to mastery of naval warfare is to understand the sea and its moods. This alone makes the business of warfare easier, as fleets can move further when winds and tides are correctly used. Japanese naval battles closely resemble land battles fought on platforms lashed together, but naval commanders do recognise that ships can be manoeuvred to gain an advantage. \n\nJapan’s numerous rivers and surrounding seas (there are some benefits to being an island nation) provided many opportunities for fishing, travel and trade. This ease of movement also made Japan vulnerable to unwelcome visitors, including pirates, Mongols and European traders. The Mongol invasions of 1274 and 1281 saw vast fleets sent against Japan, but the sea that brought the attackers also destroyed them: the kamikaze, or “divine wind” destroyed the Mongol fleet in a terrible storm. It was the legend of the storm that, along with a debased form of bushido, inspired the Japanese navy to contemplate, train and then use suicide pilots in World War II. Many brave young men were sent to futile deaths in the last days of the war when it was quite clear that their sacrifice would be entirely pointless. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_spear_sojutsu_mastery \n\nA true master knows the limits of his mastery, but will show others his stumbling steps on the path of wisdom. Even the greatest teacher must have somewhere to teach, and this art allows the construction of a yari master dojo. In turn, this allows the recruitment of exceptionally skilful spear-armed units capable of forming a nigh-impenetrable spear wall. Few enemies can break through such a formation in battle. \n\nThe spear has a special significance in Japanese mythology. Once Heaven and Earth had been created out of chaos, the deities Izanagi and Izanami came into being and created the islands of Japan. Standing on the “floating bridge of heaven” they dipped a magical spear into the ocean below. From its tip an island was formed. It was here that the couple were married and consummated their relationship. Izanami then gave birth to all the islands of Japan and a number of other deities. Two large rocks, Izanami and Izanagi, can still be found just off the coast near Ise. They are bound together by a rice-straw rope, symbolising the bonds of marriage between the deities who created the islands of Japan. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_spear_spear_expertise \n\nAlmost any village idiot can hold a spear, but it takes skill to realise the true potential of the weapon. \n\nThrough years of practice, study and careful contemplation a warrior can learn the spear’s secrets and unleash its power. It is also unusual in that the spear’s true value is not to be found in the hand of a single warrior, but only when many are so armed. Spear expertise trains many to use the impenetrable and deadly pike square formation, a formidable defensive manoeuvre. \n\nThe “Seven Spears of Shizugatake” was the name given to seven generals who fought for Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the Battle of Shizugatake in 1583. While Kato Kiyomasa was driven to prove himself in battle, others in the group were experienced and ferocious warriors. Fukushima Masanori was noted for killing his opponent Haigo Gozaemon, a famous samurai, by driving a spear right through his body. And just to be awkward, there was an “eighth spear”, Ishikawa Heisuke, but he died in the battle. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_spear_way_of_the_spear \n\nA warrior must know himself before he can be ready for battle. Intense training helps a warrior achieve a deeper understanding of his capabilities. Even the simplest of weapons, a spear, needs study if the warrior is to use it to best effect. A man with the proper training acts without thought on the battlefield, fighting without thought of self. What is true for one is true for many, and the way of the spear increases the effectiveness and experience of all spear-armed troops, making them a truly formidable defensive force. \n\nDuring the Sengoku Jidai, Japanese warfare changed. Battles grew ever larger as more men were fielded: the humble spear-armed ashigaru became a vital part of large armies, outnumbering the skilled samurai many times over. While all the clans used spearmen, they all had differing tactical ideas about their uses, and even about the official length of spears: they were always used as melee weapons and never thrown like javelins. The Oda used a pike-like spear over five metres in length, while other clans favoured handier, shorter spears. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_sword_kenjutsu_mastery \n\nThe warrior without self can realise extraordinary abilities. Some truly great warriors can pass these skills on to others. Kenjutsu mastery allows the construction of a sword master school. Here the katana masters, an elite unit with almost-unbreakable morale can be recruited: they also have the fighting skills of a flock of tengu spirits! Other sword-armed units can also be trained to an incredibly high standard. \n\nSeveral Japanese religious and mythical figures carry swords, but perhaps the most terrifying is Fudo-Myoo, one of the five “Great Buddhas of Wisdom”, the guardians of Buddhist belief. He is typically portrayed as having a terrifying face with his long hair surrounded by a halo of flames which are believed to consume passions. Fudo-Myoo is often described as “the immovable” and he teaches people the ways of Buddha and encourages self-control. In order to achieve his task he uses his sword to conquer greed, anger and ignorance, and a rope to catch all those who dare oppose Buddha and his ways. Statues created in his honour are often placed near the entrance to waterfalls or deep in mountain caves, as Fudo-Myoo is the patron deity of the Yamabushi, the belligerent mountain hermits of Japan. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_sword_sword_expertise \n\nWarfare is not the struggle of one man against another. It is the struggle of armies, and the skills needed for large-scale battle are not necessarily those required for a duel. As the lone warrior gives way to the formed mass of troops, the techniques of swordplay must also change. Sword expertise improves the skill and experience of sword-armed units, and allows some to use the “banzai” ability. This significantly increases the movement speed, charge and melee strength of a unit for a short time. Equally importantly, it makes the unit’s morale temporarily unbreakable. \n\nHistorically, Japanese emperors were proficient in all kinds of cultural activities, ranging from tea ceremonies to swordsmanship. During his exile on the island of Oki, Emperor Go-Toba, the 82nd emperor, dedicated himself to the study of swords. He gathered the greatest swordsmiths and encouraged them to share the secrets of their trade. In return, he gave them his patronage and the title of “goban kaji” or “smiths in attendance to the emperor”. He became a talented swordsmith in his own right, but never signed his swords. Instead the 24-leaf chrysanthemum crest was placed on the hilt of every weapon he made. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_sword_way_of_the_sword \n\nThe true student of the sword practices daily, until there is no enemy and no weapon. The proper stroke and counterstroke happen without thought: all becomes as one and the warrior simply reacts correctly to every situation. Warriors who go through such rigorous and endless training have their skills improved, and are already experienced in combat before they even reach a battlefield. \n\nMiyamoto Musashi, the author of the Book of Five Rings and a legendary swordsman, devoted his life to his swordsmanship. At 16, he set off on a pilgrimage to discover all he could about the art of combat. He spent most of his life on the road, never settling, and sleeping out in the open regardless of the season. He looked wretched and unkempt; this was something highly unusual in a samurai, and it is said that he never bathed, as entering washing would have left him unarmed and vulnerable. He eventually settled with his adopted son, Iori, but easy comfort did not agree with him and retired to a cave, where he lived until his death. Musashi’s book is still influential, and a fascinating glimpse into a now-lost world. Truetechnologies_onscreen_name_gempei_civil_admin_direct_land_tax Direct land Tax True
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technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_civil_gold_standard Gold Standard True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_civil_kokutai Kokutai True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_civil_merchant_house_selection Merchant House Selection True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_civil_merchant_houses Merchant Houses True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_civil_private_academies Private Academies True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_civil_restoration_of_the_domain Restoration of the Domain True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_civil_revised_land_tax Revised Land Tax True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_civil_sakoku Sakoku True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_civil_seclusion Seclusion True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_civil_surveillance Surveillance True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_civil_tea_ceremony Tea Ceremony True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_civil_western_agenda Western Agenda True
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technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_military_arms_deals Arms Deals True
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technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_military_common_shell Explosive Shell True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_military_copper_plating Copper Plating True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_military_gatling_gun Gatling Gun Towers True
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technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_military_modern_rifles Modern Rifles True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_military_ramming Ramming True
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technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_military_suppression_fire Suppression Fire True
technologies_onscreen_name_boshin_military_torpedo_upgrade Torpedo Upgrade True
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technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_civil_admin_police_office 侍所 True
technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_civil_admin_provincial_officials 国司 True
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technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_civil_core_tang_military 唐の兵法 True
technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_civil_core_taoist_thinking 道教思想 True
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technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_civil_development_clan_identity 氏族の大義 True
technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_civil_development_court_of_pleasure 宮廷の喜び True
technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_civil_development_sumo_retainers 相撲使 True
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technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_civil_loyalty_kishomon 起請文 True
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technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_civil_religion_confucianism 朱子学 True
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technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_military_attack_strategy_of_attack 攻法 True
technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_military_bow_bow_expertise 熟練弓術 True
technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_military_bow_kyujutsu_mastery 至高の弓術 True
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technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_military_core_budo 武道 True
technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_military_core_bushi 武士 True
technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_military_core_bushido 武士道 True
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technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_military_core_samurai_code 士道 True
technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_military_core_samurai_way 兵の道 True
technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_military_core_the_old_way 古道 True
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technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_military_defence_strategy_of_defence 防法 True
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technologies_onscreen_name_gempei_military_horse_horse_mastery 至高の馬術 True
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technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_epic_architecture 豪壮建築 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_tax_reform 石高制 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_tea_ceremony 茶道 True
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technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_traditional_building 伝統建築 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_way_of_chi 英知の道 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_zen 禅 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_loyalty_noh 能 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_loyalty_sumo_tournament 上覧相撲 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_metsuke_secret_police 侍所 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_metsuke_sword_hunt 刀狩 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_ninja_ninjutsu_mastery 忍術 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_ninja_school_of_shinobi 忍学校 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_province_chonindo 町人道 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_province_equal_fields 棚田農法 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_province_kinza_mint 金座 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_religion_essence_of_the_spirit 悟り True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_religion_neo_confucianism 朱子学 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_religion_scholarship 奨学 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_custom_battle_tech . True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_bow_bow_expertise 熟練弓術 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_bow_kyujutsu_mastery 至高の弓術 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_bow_way_of_the_bow 弓の道 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_bushido 武士道 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_form 型 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_heaven_and_earth 天と地 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_horse_mastery 至高の馬術 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_shih 英傑 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_strategy_of_attack 攻法 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_strategy_of_defence 防法 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_the_five_elements 五輪 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_musket_attack_by_fire 火薬の兵法 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_musket_teppo_mastery 至高の砲術 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_naval_mastery_of_the_waves 波を征す True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_naval_naval_expertise 熟練水軍 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_naval_way_of_the_sea 海の道 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_spear_sojutsu_mastery 至高の槍術 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_spear_spear_expertise 熟練槍術 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_spear_way_of_the_spear 槍の道 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_sword_kenjutsu_mastery 至高の剣術 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_sword_sword_expertise 熟練剣術 True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_sword_way_of_the_sword 剣の道 True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_abolition_of_land_restriction The wind blows where it will. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_administrative_training The pen can kill or save as many as the sword. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_capitalist_production The clouds are stained with the smoke of men’s little lives. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_censorship Not all thoughts are worthy thoughts. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_central_reforms Do not leave the rats undisturbed if you want rice in winter. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_charter_oath One justice, one idea, one oath, one step at a time. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_consular_court The affairs of the few must be ordered for the benefit of all. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_cordial_relations A polite smile answers many questions. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_domain_and_the_realm Every man has an appointed place, if only they could see it. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_epic_architecture Stones laid without harmony are home only to strife. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_foreign_affairs Conversation can be as sharp as any sword. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_gold_standard Hide gold beneath paper. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_kokutai The spirit of the nation is the body of the state. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_merchant_house_selection At harvest, pluck the ripe fruit. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_merchant_houses To everything there is a season. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_private_academies A strong back does not make a man. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_restoration_of_the_domain Look to the foundations when the house shakes. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_revised_land_tax Land cannot be hidden when the inspector calls. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_sakoku The door is shut; gaze through the window. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_seclusion Retire from the world, and contemplate truth. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_surveillance See much, say little. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_tea_ceremony Resolute perfection shows a calm heart. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_civil_western_agenda The future is not what it used to be. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_advanced_segment_shell Death may brush aside any defence. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_arms_deals The merchants of death herald the carrion birds. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_carbine_cavalry One bullet, in the right place, may turn a battle. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_common_shell An explosion settles many arguments. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_copper_plating “But where will the barnacles go?” True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_gatling_gun A hell-spawned demon spits death only once. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_imported_guns The target does not care who made the bullet. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_improved_defences What defence is there against the future? True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_iron_plating A sensible man looks to his o-yoroi as well as his katana. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_kneel_fire The aimed shot strikes home. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_late_line_infantry All must learn to serve the state. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_modern_army Ten thousand bayonets support a throne. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_modern_rifles A man can die without ever seeing who killed him. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_ramming Subtlety can be over-rated. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_rifled_cannons Within the span of a man's arms: death at any distance. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_sabre_cavalry War can look suspiciously like banditry. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_school_of_shinobi Walking in shadows requires a soft tread. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_segment_shell There is much ingenuity in killing from afar. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_shih A hand open in welcome, or clenched in a fist, remains a hand. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_shipyard_research Sea-mastery begins ashore. True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_suppression_fire “Ah! The makers of bullets will do well!” True
technologies_short_description_boshin_military_torpedo_upgrade Sometimes death comes openly, sometimes with a hidden dagger. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_admin_direct_land_tax Every blade of grass has its value. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_admin_police_office Assume nothing, believe nothing, suspect everything. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_admin_provincial_officials Ink and paper do not make good government. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_core_chinese_learning The dragon has both claws and a honeyed tongue. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_core_poetry_and_literature "It must be clever. It doesn't rhyme." True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_core_rice_loans "Money changes hands; the rest is decoration." True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_core_tang_military There is profit in the correct way. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_core_taoist_thinking Sky, trees, earth: all one. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_core_tax_quota Money has a way of finding the right treasury. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_core_todofuken Wisdom hides the sword but keeps it sharp. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_core_way_of_chi The belly is the seat of all power. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_development_clan_identity A pedigree is a good start. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_development_court_of_pleasure Hold up the mirror, and dazzle all men. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_development_sumo_retainers When all the cakes are gone, strength remains. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_loyalty_keppan A man's honour lies in his words and deeds. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_loyalty_kishomon "My honour is loyalty." True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_province_animal_husbandry Blood will tell. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_province_iron_manufacturing Iron breaks the earth. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_province_plough_and_oxen The ploughman slumbers, and dreams of more than the harvest. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_religion_calligraphy Brush and sword in accord. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_religion_ceremony_and_ritual Formality is a part of the message. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_civil_religion_confucianism The virtuous ruler has nothing to fear. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_attack_mastery_of_attack A punch to the face lacks subtlety, not effectiveness. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_attack_strategy_of_attack Victory does not come to one who waits patiently. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_bow_bow_expertise The arrow flies true if shot with sincerity. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_bow_kyujutsu_mastery The honest bowman does not blame his bow. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_bow_way_of_the_bow There is no target, only intent. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_core_budo Beneath the greatest generals: sure footing on the path. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_core_bushi A thousand cuts before the first blow strikes home. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_core_bushido The path should not be easy to walk. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_core_koryu Take up the weapon, and pierce the clouds. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_core_old_way_mastery Old things rust only when they are unused. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_core_samurai_code "Hullo clouds! Hullo sky! Hullo severed human heads!" True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_core_samurai_way Honour and loyalty: Nothing else. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_core_the_old_way A new dog should learn old tricks. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_defence_mastery_of_defence Always give a foe an obvious escape. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_defence_strategy_of_defence No enemy likes to look foolish. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_general_forms_of_the_earth From stony ground good men spring up to defend their homes. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_general_the_nine_transformations There is more to leadership than shouting. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_horse_form Horseman and horse: one creature in battle. True
technologies_short_description_gempei_military_horse_horse_mastery A quiet word does more than the whip. True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_calligraphy 平穏にて、人の魂は墨に溶け込む。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_epic_architecture 調和なく敷かれた石は、ただ争いのみを生み出す。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_tax_reform ハヤブサの渇きは潤さられなければならない 。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_tea_ceremony 境地へと至るその瞬間、それは絶対なる平穏を人に示す。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_todofuken 善政の下にある民百姓は、それが善政であると気づかず、感謝する事もない。少なくとも、その英知が消え去るまでは。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_traditional_building 木は内心、大工により屋根の梁にされることを待ち望んでいる。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_way_of_chi 万物には内なる力があり、それらは解放されるのを待っている。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_zen 庭師は庭の見る夢に過ぎない。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_loyalty_noh 彼等はもてなされているにも拘らず、嘆き、笑い、そして義侠心が掻き立たされる。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_loyalty_sumo_tournament 土俵の中に名誉あり True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_metsuke_secret_police 民百姓と君主は非常の士によって護られなければならない。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_metsuke_sword_hunt 刀とは武士の魂であり、それ以外の何物でもない。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_ninja_ninjutsu_mastery 知性の光すら、暗い影を作り出す。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_ninja_school_of_shinobi 忍びの術の訓練は、影を歩む者とその主君に利をもたらす。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_province_chonindo 金は刃を持ち得ぬが、人の魂を刈り取る事ができる。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_province_equal_fields 百姓無しでは農地が生きず、農地無しでは百姓が生きぬ。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_province_kinza_mint 価値ある物を知るという事は尊い事 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_religion_essence_of_the_spirit 肉体は清き心から強さを引き出す。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_religion_neo_confucianism 人が皆、己のあるべき場所を知るならば、そこには明快さと正しき和が生まれる True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_religion_scholarship 賢き者は、少なくとも、言葉で敵を翻弄する事が出来る。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_custom_battle_tech . True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_bow_bow_expertise 標的など無く、名手は完璧な一射を目指す。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_bow_kyujutsu_mastery 矢は何処を飛ぶかなど意に留めない、ただ飛ぶ事こそが誉れなのである! True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_bow_way_of_the_bow 弓道とは弓を放つ技術である。会得すれば矢は無心にて当たるだろう。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_bushido 武士道と云ふは死ぬ事と見つけたり。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_form 繁雑さは破滅の源である。技と型は一体である。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_heaven_and_earth 森羅万象は懸命な大将の軍略に欠かせぬものである。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_horse_mastery 真に秘すべき事。それはある事柄においては、馬は人よりも賢明であるという事。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_shih 差し伸べられ開かれた手、固く握り締められ拳となりし手。そのどちらも手であるのだ。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_strategy_of_attack 防御だけでは勝利がもたらされる事は無く、確固たる攻撃が必要である。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_strategy_of_defence 攻撃だけでは勝利を得られることは決して無く、決死の防御が必要である。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_the_five_elements この世にある全ての要素は調和してなければならない。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_musket_attack_by_fire 全ての元素の中で、火のみが恐怖と死をもたらす。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_musket_teppo_mastery 見よ!硫黄の悪意は制御され、死と絶望もたらすべく装填されていく。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_naval_mastery_of_the_waves 海は残酷な女王、人の手によってより残酷になる。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_naval_naval_expertise 風、波、潮、そして空を読むということは、未だ知らぬものがどれだけあるのかを知ることである、 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_naval_way_of_the_sea 知恵とは水に近寄らぬ事にある True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_spear_sojutsu_mastery 境地に達した者にとってそこに槍は無く、ただ平穏なる精神があるのみ。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_spear_spear_expertise 単純であるということは、武器が持つ最大の利点だ。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_spear_way_of_the_spear 「穂だ! 穂を使え!」 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_sword_kenjutsu_mastery 至高に至る道、それは殺戮の道ではない。どんな愚か者でも殺す事は出来るのだから。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_sword_sword_expertise 賢人はそれが避けられぬ時だけ刀を抜く。 True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_sword_way_of_the_sword 士と刀が一体である時、彼等に敵はない。 True