technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_calligraphy	\n\nThe art of writing beautifully demands careful contemplation and flowing control from its students. The brush shows the inner spirit of the writer, and the inner character of a man can be seen by those with eyes to read, with understanding, his written characters. A cultured man, one who writes even the simplest message with care and respect for the recipient, will be well regarded. The proper respect shown to friend and foe alike will have a positive effect on diplomatic activities. \n\nHistorically, Japanese calligraphy was based on the Chinese form, but it soon developed into its own distinct, beautiful style. Its development was largely due to three men, Ono no Tofu, Fujiwara no Sukemasa and Fujiwara no Yukinari. Ono no Tofu went on to become one of Japan’s most famous calligraphers and his career spanned the rule of three emperors. His life’s work is summed up by this story: Ono no Tofu was walking along a riverbank in the rain when he spotted a small tree frog trying to jump up to the leaf of a willow tree. The little frog tried and tried and kept on trying until, eventually, it succeeded and disappeared into the branches of the tree. The frog’s perseverance inspired Ono no Tofu to continue with his studies, and he became one of the greatest calligraphers of history. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_epic_architecture	\n\nA daimyo’s castle is his home and his fortress, stamping his authority on the landscape. Just as importantly, it is also his palace: the setting to show his grandeur and gravitas when meeting friends, dignitaries and rivals. The quality of the building sends an important message to friends and foes alike. Focusing on the aesthetic qualities of a building, as well as its strength, harks back to an earlier, more peaceful time, perhaps with the implicit promise that the daimyo will see to it that they return. Magnificent designs conjure up past peace and prosperity, and promise a better future. \n\nSengoku Jidai-period castles were largely made of wood and, because of the civil war and fire assaults, very few remain today. Castles also constantly changed as owners and their needs changed. When a daimyo conquered a new province, the castle would be altered to suit his tastes and military needs. Each castle ended up as a mixture of styles, extensions, rebuilds and more extensions, making it harder to read the original design, but easier to trace its history of building work!	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_tax_reform	\n\nFarming is a harsh, unrelenting and threadbare existence, particularly when you are taxed on your harvest, the land you work, and the home you live in. Sometimes, you are expected to pay special taxes charged to support the aristocracy. A daimyo, however, cannot tax his subjects for long before they have nothing left, or turn rebellious. Tax reform allows rice, gold, physical labour or, indeed, almost anything else, to be used to pay a tax account. All are equally valid, and everyone can now pay properly! \n\nIn medieval Japan the peasantry were subject to crippling taxes on the land they worked, their produce and their homes. They also paid “emergency” taxes on top as they were required for special projects. Takeda Shingen (1521-1573) introduced tax reforms that applied to nearly everyone from religious temples to samurai families. He also replaced corporal punishment for minor offences with a system of fines. Everyone had to pay something, which was at least a little fairer. He was not, however, a man over-blessed with kindness or fairness, and was infamous for owning two large cauldrons, used when needed to boil those who crossed him!	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_tea_ceremony	\n\nThe tea ceremony is a symbol of sophistication and taste, and embodies the principles of Zen. Everything carefully reflects the host and his standing, and the ceremony itself has an etiquette that must be followed. The elegance of the ceremony is a mark of the culture and civilized standards of a daimyo: the man’s honour is increased by this art. The tea ceremony also has a positive effect on the happiness of the population. \n\nThe tea ceremony is a graceful act, and each movement naturally flows into the next, with every moment of the ceremony set before a guest arrives. Guests are seated on tatami mats in the tea house, and then all the tea-making equipment is carried in and arranged. Once everything is laid out, the implements are purified with a silk cloth, hot water is poured into the bowls, and the tea mixed with a whisk, which has in turn been carefully warmed. Tea is served in strict order of seniority, and even the process of clearing away is a regulated part of the ceremony. Done correctly, however, it serves to put everyone in a contemplative and calm state of mind, perfect for serious discussions of great matters.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_todofuken	\n\nA daimyo who wishes to hold his lands must be prepared for war with one hand and maintain peace with his other. Laws and administrators keep the people in order and, if such laws are fair and just, then they will also be content with their rulers. A wise daimyo establishes a hierarchy of commissioners, councillors, tax collectors, secret police and magistrates. Each answers to his superior for his conduct, leaving the daimyo and his advisors to consider strategy and policy. \n\nBefore the Sengoku Jidai, Japanese laws were chiefly concerned with governing the behaviour of the imperial court. The peasantry were largely ignored, and left to suffer or thrive under the landowners, who enforced their own laws and punishments as they wished. As the daimyo took power, new laws were created to cement the status of the warrior class. The Muromachi clan were rather cunning in their new laws, and introduced the idea of group responsibility: an entire community could and would be punished for the wrongdoing of one person. Families, neighbours and acquaintances would all suffer. This had the benefit of setting everyone to watch each other, suppressing many rebellions by the lower orders. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_traditional_building	\n\nIn times of war, buildings need to be strong, sturdy, and defensible. Castles, however, also become homes, and status symbols. The way they are built has to change to reflect these peaceful and human aspects as being important alongside military requirements. Aesthetics and defence must work together. In turn, this means that traditional building styles are valued once more, and the cost and construction time of all building work undertaken in capitals is reduced. \n\nWith the rise of the daimyo warlords, Japan underwent a cultural change. The ruling warrior class was able to impose their values on Japanese culture though their patronage of the arts. The architecture and art of the Sengoku Jidai stressed both honour and militaristic leanings: extravagant castles were eloquent testaments to wealth and status, whilst paintings and wall hangings depicted mighty battles. \n\nThe Edo period brought unification and peace to Japan. Once again, art changed to reflect the times: battle and heroic paintings were replaced by simple themes of everyday scenery and life. The warriors who were once patrons devoted themselves to new pursuits, such as studying religion, and the rising merchant class became the new patrons.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_way_of_chi	\n\nThe wisdom to rule well is given to few men. Those who have it quickly pass into legend, remembered for all eternity. A man must not only learn the way of the warrior but also how to govern in peace. No community can exist in eternal war, and the leader who can survive a peace will always prevail over one who cannot adapt. His clan’s fame will increase amongst friend and foe alike. \n\nMany of Japan’s greatest military leaders were, of course, bloodthirsty and vicious warriors, and yet they ruled their people with a justice and good sense that transcended their warrior roots. Toyotomi Hideoyoshi, for example, instigated a number of political, economic and social reforms, including the introduction of a rigid class system, land surveys and the prohibition of arms to anyone outside the warrior class. Tokogawa Ieyasu, the most famous shogun in Japanese history, introduced laws to help control the various daimyo. He insisted that they would spend a year in the provinces they had been granted, then the next year in Edo where they could be watched.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_core_zen	\n\nThe word “Zen” means meditation and concentration, and those who live their lives by its principles develop great self-understanding through a life of discipline and contemplation. Followers of Zen are not expected to study religious texts, as their philosophy is one of interaction. The wisdom of Zen is passed from teacher to student not through words, but through thought and feeling. Zen promotes the idea of harmony amongst the people and encourages a sense of belonging, for everyone has a defined place in the world. This philosophy lowers the likelihood of rebellions, providing everyone shares this religious conviction. \n\nZen Buddhism arrived in China in the 6th century thanks to the efforts of Bodhidharma, a monk. As Zen reached Japan the monk became known as Daruma, and his image is still instantly recognisable to most Japanese people. The “Daruma doll” is a lucky charm that grants wishes. As purchased, a Daruma doll has no eyes: the owner paints one on the face and makes a wish. Only after the wish is granted is the second eye painted. This tradition is based on the story that Daruma fell asleep while meditating, and was so ashamed that he cut off his own eyelids, resulting in a somewhat unnerving stare! As his severed eyelids landed on the ground they became tea plants, and Daruma was shown that tea would help adherents remain awake during meditation.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_loyalty_noh	\n\nCulture brings balance and understanding to the warrior’s life. This is particularly true of noh theatre: as a man learns to read the subtlest of emotions on stage, he can also understand the emotions of an enemy in battle. Yet, there is also a practical side to these theatrics: the daimyo who provides his men with entertainment worthy of them can expect their respect for, and loyalty to, him to increase. \n\nActor and noh theorist Kanze Kiyotsugu developed the theatrical form during the 14th century. Noh was, and is, an entirely performance-based art. Unlike Europe, where plays could be read as well as watched for pleasure, Noh relied on stories the audience already knew, so the entire point was the skill, drama and poignancy of the actors’ performance. A skilled actor could convey great emotions with but the smallest of gestures, and this was the measure of an actor’s skill. Appearance didn’t matter: the oldest man could play a young girl if he could convey her feelings and inner character through his movements.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_loyalty_sumo_tournament	\n\nThe cultural pursuits of a lord reveal much about his ability to lead men. Sumo is an excellent representation of a man’s strength and an effective way for a leader to display his power and influence to the people. Tournaments can last for days and involve many fighters: the only limits are the lord’s purse and influence! News of sumo tournaments soon spreads and a clan’s people can feel greatly uplifted as a consequence. \n\nOda Nobunaga was the first to stage a sumo event that used the now-famous ring. Before that, the spectators simply stood in a circle to mark the fight’s boundaries. Sumo tournaments were a good way for a leader to display his power and wealth to the masses: Nobunaga assembled 1,500 fighters to entertain the public during his tournament. \n\nThe origins of sumo wrestling are lost in time, as wrestling in its most basic form has been around for many generations. Heavily steeped in Shinto tradition, sumo bouts are incredibly short, but the ceremonies that precede them are lengthy and filled with religious symbolism. Even the ring itself, a clay ring filled with sand, is a symbol of the purity of Shinto.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_metsuke_secret_police	\n\nEnemies within the walls concern a wise daimyo as much as those at his gates. Most men live by an honest and strict code of loyalty and honour, yet there are always the false few who have no loyalty except to their own ambitions. To guard against such insidious falsehood it is best to employ metsuke: they can weed out rebels before treachery and rebellion blossom. This requires agents of great skill, able to piece together the truth of whispers, glances and hearsay and act decisively and correctly. Training such men to follow procedures rather than rely on gut instinct will increase their skills in rooting out trouble. \n\nLaw enforcement was somewhat erratic (to put it politely) during the Sengoku Jidai, but treachery had been a constant. The Tokugawa shogunate used metsuke to investigate anyone below the rank of daimyo, seeking out, and nipping in the bud, any rebellion. The old ways of warlords and warfare could not be allowed to continue if the nation was ever to have peace. The surviving daimyos were allowed to keep their provinces, but could never tell if their own actions and those of their vassals were being monitored. Their families were kept close by the shogun, as insurance for good behaviour.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_metsuke_sword_hunt	\n\nWhen everyone can carry a weapon, effective rebellion is easy. Limit the number of swords, and you may not remove rebellious feelings from men’s hearts, but they lack practical means to revolt. The sword hunt confiscates the swords of anyone who is not a samurai. The samurai themselves have a vested interest in helping because their high status as warriors is protected. Deprived of their weaponry, the lower orders become easier to suppress and, with more metsuke too, they can be watched for discontent. \n\nHistorically, the great Oda Nobunaga started the great sword hunt. He wanted to disarm the peasants and lower classes: this would make rebellion difficult, and create a clear class system where only loyal samurai could carry weapons. He also needed to stop the troublesome Ikko-Ikki from challenging his rule again. Nobunaga was so enraged by their resistance that his final crushing blow was unthinkably vicious. At the battle of Nagashima in 1574, he drove the inhabitants of Nagashima fortress into their inner buildings, constructed a giant wall around them, and fired the defences. Any man, woman or child that escaped the flames was shot: it is thought some 20,000 people perished. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_ninja_ninjutsu_mastery	\n\nNinjutsu is not about “right” or “wrong”. Ninjas must put aside any thought of a code or way such as the bushido of samurai. Skill is the highest test, the greatest proof of worth and a ninja is true to himself and ninjutsu if he strives for perfection in his art. That his art is death and destruction is neither here nor there. Mastery teaches a ninja how to use the most esoteric techniques and weapons to overcome his own weaknesses. \n\nThe traditions of the ninja were closely guarded within families, passed down the generations and never mentioned to outsiders. Most ninja bands were actually extended families, skilled in the arts of subterfuge and passing themselves off as humble farmers or tradesmen in their “day jobs”. The most notable ninja groups were in the mountainous and largely inaccessible provinces of Iga and Koga. This did not stop Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582) from attacking in 1581 in an effort to exterminate them. Though he killed many ninjas, more escaped and sought protection from Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616). In return for asylum, they worked exclusively for the Tokugawas from then on.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_ninja_school_of_shinobi	\n\nAll daimyo expect to be assassinated and, as they accumulate power, the chances of such a death increase. An assassin, therefore, must prepare equally thoroughly. To be a ninja is to embrace invisibility, but even for the best ill luck can spell doom and destruction. A school of shinobi prepares a ninja by anticipating the unexpected, and countering the foreseen event. Training here is extremely dangerous and intense: not everyone survives, but those who do are superbly able. \n\nAs with the samurai, family mattered to the ninjas. Your parentage determined your acceptance for training, meaning that secrets were kept within the family. As a result, there were very few true ninja families, and they could charge astronomical fees for their services. Unlike the samurai, who gave their loyalties forever, ninjas could and did work for anyone with money. This suited the daimyo, for their knowledge of a ninja’s work could always be denied!	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_province_chonindo	\n\nAlthough considered to be a lower class of people than the honourable samurai, merchants are incredibly important to the clan’s coffers. Chonindo argues that the merchant class’ quest for wealth is just as honourable as the samurai quest for glory on the field of battle. The introduction of a moral code that glorifies the pursuit of profit whilst stressing the importance of thrift and frugality helps increase trade income for all provinces and encourages economic growth amongst the merchant classes. \n\nThe ethics of chonindo were developed by Ishida Baigan, a man with a particular interest in the problems faced by the merchant class. According to formal Edo ideology, merchants were considered to be one of the lowest social classes. Ishida Baigan believed that the ideas of chonindo or “the way of the townsman” were equal to that of “the way of the warrior” and no less valid to all members of society. He argued that morals transcended the class system; therefore a merchant could nurture morality in exactly the same way as a samurai. He encouraged his followers to devote themselves to the pursuit of profit whilst remaining scrupulously honest and cultivating the virtues of thrift and frugality. If merchants lived their lives according to these values, then their profit driven motive was in accord with the way of heaven. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_province_equal_fields	\n\nAgriculture is key to the development of a successful clan. Armies cannot march if hungry, and peasants cannot work if starving. Investing in equal fields increases the wealth of all farms across all your provinces, as everyone has sufficient to eat and work. Terrace farming allows use of steep landscapes for fields, where it was previously impossible to grow crops. \n\nFor all its size, Japan has remarkably little natural farmland. The rice paddies are a beautiful contrast to the country’s jagged mountainous peaks, but somewhat constrained. Every square inch has to be put to a sensible use. Rice as a crop is a good use, although the mythical origins of rice are not exactly pleasant. \n\nDuring a chance meeting Susano-Wo, the storm god, ordered Uke-Mochi, the food goddess, to give him food. To meet his somewhat boisterous demands, Uke-Mochi pulled food from her own mouth, nose and bottom. In a rage, Susano-Wo killed her, and from her corpse sprang all the basic food crops: from her ears, millet; from her eyes, rice; from her nose, red beans; from her genitals, wheat; and from her backside, soybeans. Some versions blame Tsukiyomi, the moon god, for the killing, but all myths are agreed about the unpleasant origins of soy! True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_province_kinza_mint	\n\nWhile traditionalists may enjoy the cut and thrust of haggling and barter, government officials naturally prefer a trading system that can be codified, recorded and above all, taxed. The introduction of standard coinage makes the collection of taxes easier, and makes the work of a merchant easier too. Town wealth improves, with long term benefits to the ruling classes also, as wealth can always be taxed. \n\nThe Kinza Mint was located in Edo, and its most important coin was the koban, a small coin struck in 1601 at the request of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Kinza also made the oban, a larger gold coin, but as this was much more valuable than the koban, it had a limited circulation and tended to be given as a gift or used to pay rewards. Creating these intricate and beautiful coins was a hereditary business, and the families that did so worked under the watchful eye of the Tokugawa government. Before Tokugawa Ieyasu introduced this idea of standardised money, different types of coins were used all over Japan, causing endless confusion and argument amongst merchants and tax officials over their precise values. Some were made of gold while others, mostly in the countryside, were made of the less expensive copper.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_religion_essence_of_the_spirit	\n\nIt requires a strong spirit and exceptional patience to become a monk. It also requires an able, educated mind to grapple with deep theological questions. A devotee of Buddha will gain wisdom and understanding of the world. The path to harmony through abandoning desire is not easy, for the desire for harmony is a desire in itself. It is not a path for the faint of heart. Education and understanding are worthwhile, though, as they increase the abilities of all monks and make it more likely that they will succeed in their given tasks. \n\nReligion in feudal Japan was a mixture of the indigenous Shinto faith, and also Buddhism, Confucianism and Christianity from overseas. Like much else, Buddhism arrived from China but was only widely adopted when the warrior class took control of the country. It was the main religion of the Sengoku Jidai, although Christianity arrived when trade with the Portuguese began; the disciplined Jesuit “warrior missionaries” were actually rather appealing to the samurai. Under the Tokugawa shogunate, however, Christianity was banned as a foreign influence. The Tokugawas then introduced neo-Confucianism as the official religion of the state: a combination of the practicality of Confucius with the spiritual and ethereal nature of Buddhism.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_religion_neo_confucianism	\n\nThe adoption of neo-confucianism as the state philosophy ensures a clan's people align their beliefs with that of the Daimyo. Confucian thought comes from China, and stresses the values sincerity and being true to oneself and nature in order to reach harmony with the world. There is a proper etiquette for every occasion, and observing this shows that the harmonious hierarchy of the world is understood and supported. \n\nThe Tokugawa Shogunate promulgated neo-confucianism as a way of reinforcing the stability of society and Japan. It was intended to guide everyone by showing everyone their place in the universal hierarchy: fathers, sons, lords, vassals, and even the peasants in their fields, would have their relationships codified into a harmonious whole. Tokugawa Ieyasu had unified the country, but he needed to show that he was adept in peace as in war. The Tokugawas chose to ignore the confucianism ideal of free speech, and permitted only one orthodox school of thought in order to maintain control over all aspects of Japanese life: moral duty and the law became one and the same. The country was unified, but at a cost in freedom of thought and innovation.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_civil_religion_scholarship	\n\nScholarship demonstrates the state’s commitment to religious tenets and is an important step towards constructing important religious buildings. Religion is woven into all aspects of Japanese life: family, community, politics, art and warfare are all affected and guided by faith. The foundation of Buddhist philosophy is man’s relationship with the world and how to achieve harmony in life. The key is to understand and accept your place in the world, mirroring the harmony between heaven and earth. \n\nReligion in feudal Japan was approached very differently from other parts of the world. Each major faith was seen as a separate path to a universal sacredness, and it was not unusual for the ideas of one faith to be folded into another as required. These requirements often came from the followers of a faith, not from central authority. There was a basic pragmatism that made religion useful and central to people’s lives, a worthwhile way of living, rather than a preparation for rewards in the afterlife. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_custom_battle_tech	.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_bow_bow_expertise	\n\nAdvanced training is for those who have already attained skill with the bow, and teaches them to fire with even more accuracy. Practice skirmishes and mock battles prepare men for the real thing, greatly increasing their effectiveness in battle. Training can require an archer to fire up to one thousand arrows a day, making reloading a bow a reflex, not a conscious thought: faster reload times are an important advantage over the slow and laborious process of loading a gun! \n\nHistorically, a samurai’s expertise with his bow was a good test of his mettle. The bow had been the distinguishing weapon of the samurai before the Sengoku Jidai, and even after guns arrived it was still held in high regard. Military archery was synonymous with mounted archery, whereas firing while on foot was called “civilian” archery, usually practiced away from battle. This was archery as an art: hitting a target was not nearly as important as the archer’s form. The poise and grace with which the arrow was drawn back and fired were everything; hitting and killing a target was entirely secondary.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_bow_kyujutsu_mastery	\n\nA true warrior never stops learning his craft. He should strive for for perfection. Only with death does his education and his personal quest come to an abrupt end. Only a foolish and arrogant man believes himself to be unbeatable. All training, all practice, improves ability and confidence in battle. Accuracy is all-important: the best shooter is useless if his arrows fall wide of the target! Speed is also improved, as a great master can have one arrow in his hand, one in the air, and one striking the target. Kyujutsu mastery schools all archers in essential skills. \n\nHistorically, Japanese bows were quite similar to medieval European bows, in particular the feared English longbow. The Japanese bow was asymmetric: far longer above the grip than below, to make it easy to use on horseback while retaining power. The bow could be swung from side to side without getting tangled up in saddle furniture. It had a composite of a wooden core, covered in layers of lacquered bamboo, making strong yet flexible, capable of shooting a wide variety of arrows. Its beautiful simplicity disguised the fact that this was a weapon that required tremendous skill, strength and grace to use effectively.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_bow_way_of_the_bow	\n\nThe mind and sight of any archer must be trained, as surely as his muscles: a distant target must be recognised before it can be killed. This advanced training prepares bowmen to use fire arrows, deadly flaming missiles that can set fire to buildings, ships and people. \n\nThe bow has a long history in Japan, and before the introduction of the arquebus, it was the primary weapon used by samurai. They were expected to master the use of bow on foot and from horseback. In the latter part of the 15th century, Heki Danjo Masatsugu (1443-1502), a great warrior and teacher of kyudo or “the way of the bow” established an archery school. Most archery training at that time concentrated on mounted combat, but he taught his students how to fire a bow while standing. His revolutionary teachings were formalised and taught to ashigaru foot soldiers. As a result, they became a cheap supporting arm for samurai cavalry archers. However, the ashigaru still lacked the skill of samurai, and fired mass volleys rather than acting as sharpshooters.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_bushido	\n\nThe code of bushido is an unbreakable trust between samurai and master, a guide to the ways of war, and a pattern of life to be followed. For any samurai it is simply the only way he can live and retain honour. For a daimyo it is a guarantee that his men can be trusted absolutely to obey orders or die in the attempt. With bushido the morale of units is much improved. \n\nBushido translates as “way of the warrior”; it is the collective term for the many codes of honour and ideals that dictated the samurai way of life. Bushido was not a list of universal principles, but contained many separate strands of thought, but nearly all concentrated on the relationship between the samurai and his master. Honour, sincerity, obedience to his lord and a willingness to accept death as a duty were the main foundations, but bushido as interpreted by a clan could also include rules about hygiene, or whether a samurai should indulge in dancing and poetry (opinions were split on such pursuits).	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_form	\n\nForm is central to the idea of a soldier rather than a fighter: the ability to work with others as part of a unit. When men understand their place in the greater whole, their speed of movement as a body is improved. Cavalry also move as a single mass with greater effect, achieving breath-taking charges and feats of horsemanship to confound and baffle the enemy! \n\nArchery and horsemanship were always central to the samurai way. Yabusame, a kyudo (archery) ceremony to get rid of evil spirits, is still performed today, and shows the grace and deadliness of the samurai at war. The ceremony begins with a mounted archer pointing his bow at the sky and the ground to symbolise the harmony between heaven and earth. He then demonstrates his skill by riding at full gallop past a series of three targets, the mato. The sound of the arrow striking the target is said to transfer the archer’s courage to the audience; the broken parts of the target are symbols of good luck, and are signed and dated by the archer.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_heaven_and_earth	\n\nSoldiers cannot fight without arms; they cannot march without shoes; they cannot do either without food in their bellies. Armies need all of these expensive items, and more, for their soldiers, and replacement soldiers too, or they cannot function for long. The wise commander therefore pays as much attention to his supplies and surroundings as he does to the battles he must fight. Improving supply efforts and the understanding of how armies fight ensures a better replenishment rate and a better ammunition capacity in the field. \n\nOnce again, Sun Tzu wrote of these basic tenets of warfare and his teachings influenced samurai generals. His consideration of “heaven” involved taking into account the effects of climate, weather and time on the outcome of a battle. “Earth” involved understanding the terrain of the campaign, and the ease of crossing it, both for attack and retreat. His recommendations were that every aspect of heaven and earth had to be considered before battle commenced. \n\nInterestingly, Sun Tzu advised sending only a single shipment of rice with any invading army. Once this was gone, he expected his men to live by organised plunder and looting, taking what they needed from the enemy. He also recommended taking the enemy soldiers and using them too as part of the invading army!	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_horse_mastery	\n\nHorse mastery is a collection of hard-won lessons in the care and training of horses: it increases the utility of horses in warfare, even allowing horses to cover great distances quickly without risking their health. A horse must also be used to the shock, noise and confusion of battle before it ever faces an enemy. It must have the same steely courage as its rider. It must be trained to obey its rider and ignore its natural instincts to flee from danger. \n\nHistorically, samurai began as mounted warriors, much like the knights of western Europe: a man who could afford to risk a horse in war was likely to be one with some social status and wealth. Unlike European knights, the samurai originally fought as mounted archers and spear-armed lancers: the sword was very much an emergency-use weapon. Samurai archery was such that a rider steered his mount with his knees and could shoot with amazing accuracy. All this, of course, required equally good horses. The plains of Kanto were perfect for horse breeding, and the cavalry produced there were among the most experienced, and feared, in Japan.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_shih	\n\nA wise warlord understands that warfare is about more than battles and armies. He must know the strengths and weaknesses of his own lands and men, and those of his enemies. Wars are fought in the hearts and minds of men, just as much as on blood-soaked battlefields. A wise warlord considers his government, trade, foreign influence, and much else besides when contemplating the outcome of his actions. In this way, he is better placed to see advantages in the chaos, and use them. His followers will also know this, and be willing to fight all the harder for a successful man: the cost of recruiting troops will fall, and their morale will improve. \n\nThe Sengoku Jidai was an extremely violent and unstable period of Japanese history, but, like all times of stress, it produced great men: Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu are rightly regarded as the three most influential figures of this time. Each shaped the events that lead to the eventual unification of Japan, and each understood that there was much more to warfare than merely fighting. Nobunaga built roads to increase trade and movement for his armies; Hideyoshi disarmed the peasants to prevent uprisings; and Ieyasu banned Christianity and stopped foreigners from entering the country, removing a potentially disruptive influence for good. It was foresight and leadership that enabled them to rise above the other daimyos.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_strategy_of_attack	\n\nTo attack, regardless of the odds, is a mark of true courage. A general who uses the strategy of attack will have an increased charge bonus as his men follow him headlong into the heart of battle! A true warrior should always be on the attack. Bombarding an enemy with wave after wave of attackers denies them the opportunity to formulate any effective strategy. \n\nThe Battle of Hitotoribashi is one of the greatest historical examples of a leader attacking regardless of the odds: Date Terumune was murdered by Hatakeyama Yoshitsugu and his son, Date Masamune, swore revenge. He took his 7000 men and attacked Yoshitsugu at Hitotoribashi. Masamune was hideously outnumbered, as Yoshitsugu fielded some 30,000 men. Yet Masamune attacked in the name of honour! He won a decisive victory, killing Yoshitsuga and avenging his father. Masamune proved himself the better tactician, and his willingness to attack in the face of overwhelming odds marked him out as an excellent commander.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_strategy_of_defence	\n\nA successful commander must know the proper times to attack, and when it is prudent to fall back in defence. Every battle ebbs and flows to its own tides: to ignore these signs is to court disaster! Those who read the signs and mount a stout defence at the proper moment will be well placed to unleash a devastating attack. This art will allow all units to better defend themselves when they are required to do so. \n\nHistorically, the samurai did not use shields like their European contemporaries, the knights. Instead, they were trained to use their swords as active defensive tools, diverting blows rather than blocking them. The katana was cunningly wrought to have elasticity as well as sharpness, so that it could withstand the shock of deflecting a blow, and then deliver a devastating counterstrike. These ideas were carried over into larger formations. Sun Tzu, the Chinese war master, who was respected by the Japanese wrote that “Invincibility lies in the defence; the possibility of victory in the attack.”	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_core_the_five_elements	\n\nA man who understands the world around him is aware of all possibilities in that world. A general who understands the five elements and can apply his understanding will be able to exercise a more effective control over his underlings. He will grasp the essentials in any battle situation. He can apply his knowledge of the world quickly and comprehensively, making him a more effective leader. \n\nUnlike the Greek and European conceit of there being four elements of Air, Earth, Fire, and Water, the Chinese and Japanese added a fifth: the Void. Together, these were the basic building blocks of the universe. Everything was made up of one or more of these elements, and by considering them and their manifestations and effects, any intelligent person would be able to comprehend the world. This idea was also applied to more abstract concepts too, such as swordsmanship, most famously by Miyamoto Musashi (1584-1645), the sword-saint. His “Book of Five Rings” is divided into chapters for the five elements, and sought to link the philosophical to the practical matter of duelling. His book is still considered extremely useful reading, even for those whose only weapon is a corporate financial spreadsheet!	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_musket_attack_by_fire	\n\nGunpowder is a dangerous weapon, to the user as well as the target. Even during manufacture, gunpowder can kill, doing terrible slaughter when it explodes. \n\nThe sulphurous, reeking gunpowder is terrifying in fire bombs. These lethal weapons are normally hurled into enemy ranks by horuku, specially trained bombers. The bombs will cause terror and chaos among the unprepared, and set fire to anything at all flammable. The larger ones are thrown by mangonels. \n\nGunpowder originated in China, and the first recorded recipes date to around the 1040s, although accounts hundreds of years older are obviously describing something very similar to gunpowder. The Mongols copied gunpowder as a result of its use by the Chinese, and they used it against Japanese warriors in the 13th Century. Kublai Khan and his Mongols were driven back by the “kamikaze” and, thanks to this divine intervention, the Japanese never seemed all that bothered about gunpowder weapons. It was only with the arrival of European traders that guns and gunpowder were re-introduced to the Japanese by a very circuitous route.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_musket_teppo_mastery	\n\nA true master never accepts that he has mastered his weapon, especially when it is something new to warfare. He should always seek the best in himself and his chosen armament. Gunpowder mastery is achieved through countless hours of practice: the gunner must teach his eye to gauge distance, and allow for the effects of wind, rain, an uncooperative target and even irregularities in gunpowder and shot. Once all of these are understood, mastery will increase the accuracy of all arquebus-armed troops. \n\nDuring the Sengoku Jidai, the introduction of gunpowder and the arquebus changed warfare in Japan. Guns could be used by unskilled troops, meaning that armies were cheaper to recruit and maintain. As a result, they grew in size. The ashigaru became an essential component of clan armies, and gained in social status as permanent soldiers rather than peasants-under-arms. Japanese guns also improved as Portuguese weapons were copied and rapidly improved upon: it was a Japanese idea to add foresights to gun barrels. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_naval_mastery_of_the_waves	\n\nMastery of the sea comes only from long experience, passed down and codified by naval experts. The commitment demonstrated by mastery of the waves means that constructing ships is cheaper, and that dry docks can be built, allowing new ship designs to be used. These are useful things, as a naval fleet can be used to raid rivals’ trade, launch invasions and have dominion over the sea: a warlord who can strike almost anywhere is one who is feared. \n\nFleets of the Sengoku Jidai would usually be arranged as five squadrons, with the admiral in the centre. The smaller, faster ships would be out on the edges of each squadron, so that they could move swiftly to where they were needed. Orders were issued by beating drums and using coloured flags, or lanterns as night fell. All ships, regardless of size, would be well supplied with grappling hooks so that they could take part in boarding actions. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_naval_naval_expertise	\n\nAs ships and sea battles are studied, contemplated and understood, it becomes plain that there should be more to a naval engagement than a series of desperate boarding assaults. Sailors can influence the course of a battle by using their ships’ inherent abilities too. Naval expertise allows fleets to use gunpowder-based weapons, and allows the construction of fire bomb-equipped vessels too. \n\nNaval warfare usually consisted of a series of boarding actions, with ships lashed together to make a floating battlefield. As ships closed, there would be a hail of missiles to kill enemy sailors and fighters, but not much more than that. Fire weapons were popular because they could set vessels alight and, hopefully, roast at least some of the opposition before the boarding action. With the advent of guns, arquebuses and larger pieces were carried aboard and used, but they were still only a prelude to the serious business of fighting by boarding. It is worth speculating that this kind of close combat suited the samurai temperament because it gave the chance for individuals to seek out and defeat worthy opponents. Although much more practical, simply sinking an enemy in long-range combat lacked this virtue!	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_naval_way_of_the_sea	\n\nThe first step to mastery of naval warfare is to understand the sea and its moods. This alone makes the business of warfare easier, as fleets can move further when winds and tides are correctly used. Japanese naval battles closely resemble land battles fought on platforms lashed together, but naval commanders do recognise that ships can be manoeuvred to gain an advantage. \n\nJapan’s numerous rivers and surrounding seas (there are some benefits to being an island nation) provided many opportunities for fishing, travel and trade. This ease of movement also made Japan vulnerable to unwelcome visitors, including pirates, Mongols and European traders. The Mongol invasions of 1274 and 1281 saw vast fleets sent against Japan, but the sea that brought the attackers also destroyed them: the kamikaze, or “divine wind” destroyed the Mongol fleet in a terrible storm. It was the legend of the storm that, along with a debased form of bushido, inspired the Japanese navy to contemplate, train and then use suicide pilots in World War II. Many brave young men were sent to futile deaths in the last days of the war when it was quite clear that their sacrifice would be entirely pointless.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_spear_sojutsu_mastery	\n\nA true master knows the limits of his mastery, but will show others his stumbling steps on the path of wisdom. Even the greatest teacher must have somewhere to teach, and this art allows the construction of a yari master dojo. In turn, this allows the recruitment of exceptionally skilful spear-armed units capable of forming a nigh-impenetrable spear wall. Few enemies can break through such a formation in battle. \n\nThe spear has a special significance in Japanese mythology. Once Heaven and Earth had been created out of chaos, the deities Izanagi and Izanami came into being and created the islands of Japan. Standing on the “floating bridge of heaven” they dipped a magical spear into the ocean below. From its tip an island was formed. It was here that the couple were married and consummated their relationship. Izanami then gave birth to all the islands of Japan and a number of other deities. Two large rocks, Izanami and Izanagi, can still be found just off the coast near Ise. They are bound together by a rice-straw rope, symbolising the bonds of marriage between the deities who created the islands of Japan. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_spear_spear_expertise	\n\nAlmost any village idiot can hold a spear, but it takes skill to realise the true potential of the weapon. \n\nThrough years of practice, study and careful contemplation a warrior can learn the spear’s secrets and unleash its power. It is also unusual in that the spear’s true value is not to be found in the hand of a single warrior, but only when many are so armed. Spear expertise trains many to use the impenetrable and deadly pike square formation, a formidable defensive manoeuvre. \n\nThe “Seven Spears of Shizugatake” was the name given to seven generals who fought for Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the Battle of Shizugatake in 1583. While Kato Kiyomasa was driven to prove himself in battle, others in the group were experienced and ferocious warriors. Fukushima Masanori was noted for killing his opponent Haigo Gozaemon, a famous samurai, by driving a spear right through his body. And just to be awkward, there was an “eighth spear”, Ishikawa Heisuke, but he died in the battle. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_spear_way_of_the_spear	\n\nA warrior must know himself before he can be ready for battle. Intense training helps a warrior achieve a deeper understanding of his capabilities. Even the simplest of weapons, a spear, needs study if the warrior is to use it to best effect. A man with the proper training acts without thought on the battlefield, fighting without thought of self. What is true for one is true for many, and the way of the spear increases the effectiveness and experience of all spear-armed troops, making them a truly formidable defensive force. \n\nDuring the Sengoku Jidai, Japanese warfare changed. Battles grew ever larger as more men were fielded: the humble spear-armed ashigaru became a vital part of large armies, outnumbering the skilled samurai many times over. While all the clans used spearmen, they all had differing tactical ideas about their uses, and even about the official length of spears: they were always used as melee weapons and never thrown like javelins. The Oda used a pike-like spear over five metres in length, while other clans favoured handier, shorter spears.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_sword_kenjutsu_mastery	\n\nThe warrior without self can realise extraordinary abilities. Some truly great warriors can pass these skills on to others. Kenjutsu mastery allows the construction of a sword master school. Here the katana masters, an elite unit with almost-unbreakable morale can be recruited: they also have the fighting skills of a flock of tengu spirits! Other sword-armed units can also be trained to an incredibly high standard. \n\nSeveral Japanese religious and mythical figures carry swords, but perhaps the most terrifying is Fudo-Myoo, one of the five “Great Buddhas of Wisdom”, the guardians of Buddhist belief. He is typically portrayed as having a terrifying face with his long hair surrounded by a halo of flames which are believed to consume passions. Fudo-Myoo is often described as “the immovable” and he teaches people the ways of Buddha and encourages self-control. In order to achieve his task he uses his sword to conquer greed, anger and ignorance, and a rope to catch all those who dare oppose Buddha and his ways. Statues created in his honour are often placed near the entrance to waterfalls or deep in mountain caves, as Fudo-Myoo is the patron deity of the Yamabushi, the belligerent mountain hermits of Japan.	True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_sword_sword_expertise	\n\nWarfare is not the struggle of one man against another. It is the struggle of armies, and the skills needed for large-scale battle are not necessarily those required for a duel. As the lone warrior gives way to the formed mass of troops, the techniques of swordplay must also change. Sword expertise improves the skill and experience of sword-armed units, and allows some to use the “banzai” ability. This significantly increases the movement speed, charge and melee strength of a unit for a short time. Equally importantly, it makes the unit’s morale temporarily unbreakable. \n\nHistorically, Japanese emperors were proficient in all kinds of cultural activities, ranging from tea ceremonies to swordsmanship. During his exile on the island of Oki, Emperor Go-Toba, the 82nd emperor, dedicated himself to the study of swords. He gathered the greatest swordsmiths and encouraged them to share the secrets of their trade. In return, he gave them his patronage and the title of “goban kaji” or “smiths in attendance to the emperor”. He became a talented swordsmith in his own right, but never signed his swords. Instead the 24-leaf chrysanthemum crest was placed on the hilt of every weapon he made. True
technologies_long_description_shogun_military_sword_way_of_the_sword	\n\nThe true student of the sword practices daily, until there is no enemy and no weapon. The proper stroke and counterstroke happen without thought: all becomes as one and the warrior simply reacts correctly to every situation. Warriors who go through such rigorous and endless training have their skills improved, and are already experienced in combat before they even reach a battlefield. \n\nMiyamoto Musashi, the author of the Book of Five Rings and a legendary swordsman, devoted his life to his swordsmanship. At 16, he set off on a pilgrimage to discover all he could about the art of combat. He spent most of his life on the road, never settling, and sleeping out in the open regardless of the season. He looked wretched and unkempt; this was something highly unusual in a samurai, and it is said that he never bathed, as entering washing would have left him unarmed and vulnerable. He eventually settled with his adopted son, Iori, but easy comfort did not agree with him and retired to a cave, where he lived until his death. Musashi’s book is still influential, and a fascinating glimpse into a now-lost world.	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_calligraphy	書道	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_epic_architecture	豪壮建築	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_tax_reform	石高制	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_tea_ceremony	茶道	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_todofuken	分国法	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_traditional_building	伝統建築	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_way_of_chi	英知の道	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_core_zen	禅	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_loyalty_noh	能	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_loyalty_sumo_tournament	上覧相撲	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_metsuke_secret_police	侍所	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_metsuke_sword_hunt	刀狩	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_ninja_ninjutsu_mastery	忍術	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_ninja_school_of_shinobi	忍学校	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_province_chonindo	町人道	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_province_equal_fields	棚田農法	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_province_kinza_mint	金座	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_religion_essence_of_the_spirit	悟り	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_religion_neo_confucianism	朱子学	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_civil_religion_scholarship	 奨学	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_custom_battle_tech	.	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_bow_bow_expertise	熟練弓術	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_bow_kyujutsu_mastery	至高の弓術	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_bow_way_of_the_bow	弓の道	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_bushido	武士道	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_form	型	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_heaven_and_earth	天と地	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_horse_mastery	至高の馬術	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_shih	英傑	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_strategy_of_attack	攻法	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_strategy_of_defence	防法	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_core_the_five_elements	五輪	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_musket_attack_by_fire	火薬の兵法	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_musket_teppo_mastery	至高の砲術	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_naval_mastery_of_the_waves	波を征す	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_naval_naval_expertise	熟練水軍	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_naval_way_of_the_sea	海の道	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_spear_sojutsu_mastery	至高の槍術	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_spear_spear_expertise	熟練槍術	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_spear_way_of_the_spear	槍の道	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_sword_kenjutsu_mastery	至高の剣術	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_sword_sword_expertise	熟練剣術	True
technologies_onscreen_name_shogun_military_sword_way_of_the_sword	剣の道	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_calligraphy	In a moment of peace, a man's spirit flows into the ink.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_epic_architecture	Stones laid without harmony are home only to strife.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_tax_reform	ハヤブサのくちばしを濡らさせなければなりません。The falcon must be allowed to wet its beak.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_tea_ceremony	A moment of perfection illustrates the resolute calm of a man.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_todofuken	When people are ruled wisely they seldom realise it, or are grateful, until wisdom is gone.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_traditional_building	木は内心、大工により屋根の梁にされることを待ち望んでいる。Within the tree, the roof beam awaits the carpenter's touch.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_way_of_chi	万物には、解放されることを待ちかまえている力があります。To all things there is an energy, awaiting release.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_core_zen	庭師は庭の夢にすぎません。The gardener is but a dream of the garden.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_loyalty_noh	Tragedy, laughter and heroism inspire, even as they entertain.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_loyalty_sumo_tournament	土俵の中に栄誉がある。There is honour within the circle.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_metsuke_secret_police	民とその統治者は鉄の男により護らねばならない。The people and their rulers must be guarded by men of iron.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_metsuke_sword_hunt	刀は侍の魂であり、それ以外の何物でもない。The sword is the soul of the samurai, and no one else.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_ninja_ninjutsu_mastery	理解の光さえ影を投げかけます。Even the light of understanding casts shadows.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_ninja_school_of_shinobi	潜伏技術の教育は、影を歩む者とその主人の為になります。Schooling in the hidden arts benefits those who walk in shadows, and their masters.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_province_chonindo	確実ではありませんが、金は人の意思を寛容にします。Although it cannot hold an edge, gold can cut a man's soul.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_province_equal_fields	農民が来るまで土地は無駄です。土地が無ければ農民は何をしますか?A field is useless until the peasants come. Without a field, what use peasants?	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_province_kinza_mint	何かの価値を知ることには美徳があります。There is virtue in knowing the value of something.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_religion_essence_of_the_spirit	肉体は清らかな魂から強さを引き出す。The body draws its strength from the cleansed soul.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_religion_neo_confucianism	When all know their place, there is clarity and righteous harmony.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_civil_religion_scholarship	The clever man may, at least, talk his enemies to death.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_custom_battle_tech	.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_bow_bow_expertise	達人は目標を持たず、一射入魂に励みます。The target is nothing: the master strives for perfection in the shot.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_bow_kyujutsu_mastery	矢はどこに飛ぶかを気に掛けません。飛ぶだけで僥倖です!The arrow does not care where it flies, only that the flight is glorious!	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_bow_way_of_the_bow	Archery is the art of letting the arrow go; it flies without thought.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_bushido	武士道とは死ぬことと見つけたり。The way of the warrior is the resolute acceptance of death.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_form	複雑さは破滅をもたらす:機能と姿勢は一体化している。Complication is ruination: function and form are one.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_heaven_and_earth	全ては慎重な将軍の戦前・戦後計画の一部である。Everything is part of a prudent general's calculations before and after battle. True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_horse_mastery	この事だけは秘密である: 幾つかの事柄においては、馬は人より賢明である。There is only this secret: in some matters, horses are wiser than men.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_shih	A hand open in welcome, or clenched in a fist, remains a hand.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_strategy_of_attack	決定的攻撃力がなければ、防御だけでは勝利をおさめられない。Without decisive attack, defence alone will not bring victory.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_strategy_of_defence	強い防御の意思が欠けていれば、攻撃だけでは決して勝利をおさめられない。Without resolute defence, attack alone will never achieve victory.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_core_the_five_elements	全ての異物と調和するべきである。There should be harmony in all that is different.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_musket_attack_by_fire	全ての元素の中で、炎だけが恐怖と死をもたらす。Of all the elements, fire alone brings fear and death.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_musket_teppo_mastery	見よ! 悪戯な硫黄は手懐けられられ、殺傷するために襲いかかる。Behold! Sulphurous devilry is tamed, and set on to kill and maim.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_naval_mastery_of_the_waves	海は人によっては、より残酷な愛人となる。The sea is a cruel mistress, made more cruel by men.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_naval_naval_expertise	To read wind, waves, tide and sky is to know how much there is still to know. True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_naval_way_of_the_sea	賢人は水際に身を置く。Wisdom lies in keeping the water on the outside.	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_spear_sojutsu_mastery	達人への道は槍にはなく、平常心のみにある。	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_spear_spear_expertise	簡便性は武器の最大の美徳。	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_spear_way_of_the_spear	"付け根だ! 付け根を使え!"	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_sword_kenjutsu_mastery	達人はどのような愚か者も斬るため、戦場の外では。	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_sword_sword_expertise	賢人は確実な時のみ刀を抜く。	True
technologies_short_description_shogun_military_sword_way_of_the_sword	戦士と刀が一体であるとき、それは無敵である。	True