unit_description_texts_description_text_Art_European_Cannons These breech-loading cannons rest upon bags of rice and are used to pummel enemy walls during sieges. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Art_Fire_Projecting_Mangonels A mangonel is a small catapult used in siege warfare to launch projectiles over castle walls, spreading chaos behind the enemy’s defences. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Art_Fire_Rockets These men are armed with large arquebuses loaded with wooden rockets that are ignited and fired into enemy ranks to cause fires and panic. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Art_Hand_Mortars Hand mortars can lob shots over the heads of intervening troops, even over high walls. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin__Inf_Line_Republican_Infantry The line of battle can be held by good soldiers, armed with rifles and inspired to defend the Republic. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Art_Armstrong_Guns An enemy dashed to smithereens is an enemy no more. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Art_Gatling_Guns Industrial machinery, applied to the battlefield business of killing. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Art_Parrot_Guns Properly employed, artillery is the lord of the battlefield. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Art_Wooden_Cannons Wooden guns: apparently absurd, and yet deadly too. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Bow_Ki The storm blows its last. Fallen across the battlefield: The arrows’ harvest. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Carbine_Cavalry Carbine cavalry can deliver accurate and witheringly rapid fire. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Imperial_Guard_Cavalry The Imperial Guard are good all-round cavalrymen, a force any general should be glad to command. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Revolver_Cavalry Revolver cavalry can unleash a tremendous fusilade into the enemy, then gallop away. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Samurai_Hero Skill with the bow may become outmoded, but courage lives forever! True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Spear_Shogunate_Guard_Cavalry These swift-moving cavalrymen should be used aggressively to harass enemy flanks, and disrupt other cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Spear_Yari_Ki These spear-armed horsemen can be incredibly effective in attacks against enemy cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Sword_Republican_Guard_Cav Japanese bravery and a little French panache can ride down almost any foe. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Sword_Sabre_Cavalry All dash and fire, les beaux sabreurs! True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Gen_Bodyguard It is not a general's place to fight. He has a battle to organise. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Gen_Hatamoto It is a general's duty to lead, and a bodyguard's duty to die for his general. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Gun_Boat_Chiyodagata Small, fast moving and manoeuvrable, the Chiyodagata is affordable yet effective. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Imperial_Guard These superior troops are the backbone of the modern army fighting to support Imperial honour. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Infanterie_de_marine These hardy marines have learned their business in tough, colonial wars across the world. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Kihetai The Kihetai are line infantry, and deadly with their modern rifles. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Republican_Guard_Infantry The Republic must be defended by those willing to endure any hardship as they stand in line of battle. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Royal_Marines Manning guns aboard ship or carrying a rifle ashore, Royal Marines always rise to a challenge. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Shogunate_Guard_Infantry These superior troops are the backbone of a modern army fighting for the Shogun. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_United_States_Marines The US Marines reputation as tough men is well deserved. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Light_Sharpshooters A few bullets, in the right targets, can turn the course of battle. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Light_Tosa_Riflemen These light infantrymen can move across the battlefield rapidly, and deliver devastating rifle fire. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Light_Yugekitai Striking from concealment, these riflemen are expert at ambushes and similar battlefield deceits. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Azure_Dragon_Force The Azure Dragons are trained to use firepower to defeat their foes, not charge into melee. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Black_Bear_Infantry These troops from Satsuma are trained as modern line infantry. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Black_Tortoise_Force The soldiers of the Black Tortoise Force are trained to beat their enemies with firepower, not cold steel. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Imperial_Infantry Imperial infantry are trained to stand in line and fire on approaching enemies. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Infantry Line infantry are the bulk of an army, doing a good deal of the killing and most of the dying. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Red_Bear_Infantry The Red Bears are line infantry from Tosa, with modern training and weapons. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Shinsengumi The shinsengumi special police are a useful force of rifle-armed samurai infantry. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Shogunate_Infantry Shogunate infantry are trained to stand in line of battle and fire on approaching enemies. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Vermillion_Bird_Force Vermilion Bird Force troops are trained to fight line infantry, overcoming foes with disciplined fire. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_White_Bear_Infantry The White Bears are line infantry, trained in the ways of modern battle. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_White_Tiger_Force The White Tigers are line infantry, trained to beat an enemy through firepower. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Militia_Levy_Infantry To defend one’s home is an act of a brave and worthy man. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Missile_Bow_Kachi Excellent shots, with superb range, these men retain the skills of earlier centuries. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Kachi These warriors carry muskets capable of massed volleys that inflict great damage. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Spear_Kyoto_Police The Kyoto police carry long pikes on the battlefield. They can only be recruited within the city of Kyoto. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Spear_Spear_Levy Armed with long spears, these men are incredibly effective against cavalry units. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Spear_Yari_Kachi These spear-armed warriors are incredibly effective against enemy cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Special_Kisho_Ninjas Death hides in the rustling of leaves. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Sword_Katana_Kachi When used by a skilled warrior the katana is a deadly weapon, ideal for melee combat. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Sword_Shogitai These katana-armed warriors are exceptionally brave, and deadly in close combat. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Ship_HMS_Warrior Powerful, enormous iron beasts, the Warrior class have unparalleled armament. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Ship_Kaiten Faster than comparably-sized ships, the Kaiten’s speed and manoeuvrability make it ideal for port and coastal battles. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Ship_Kaiyo_Maru Powerful and strong, the Kaiyo Maru is blessed with excellent firepower and crew morale. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Ship_Kanko_Maru Slow moving and armoured, this ship is useful in large scale naval battles as well as coastal and port battles. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Ship_Kanrin_Maru Size, armament and a good turn of speed make the Kanrin Maru a handy ship. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Ship_Kasuga Suitable for battles in the open sea and coastal engagements, the Kasuga has good range and accuracy. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Ship_Kotetsu This slow moving battle ship has impressive armament with excellent range and accuracy. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Ship_LOcean Large vessels, the Ocean class ironclads are heavily armoured, and possess excellent long-ranged and accurate guns. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Ship_USS_Roanoke Pride of the US navy, these large ironclad battleships have excellent firepower and crew morale. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Boshin_Torpedo_Boat_Chiyodagata A small, fast-moving vessel armed with deadly torpedoes. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Cannon_Ship_Cannon_Bune These are medium, moderately fast ships, armed with cannon and used to bombard enemy vessels before moving out of range. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Cav_Missile_Bow_Cavalry Trained to aim and fire a bow while riding, these samurai make excellent skirmishers. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Cav_Missile_Donderbuss_Cavalry This special cavalry unit is armed with the fearsome donderbuss, a musket with a short, flared barrel used to fire a hail of projectiles at extremely close range. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Cav_Missile_Matchlock_Mounted_Gunner These mounted samurai carry matchlocks, allowing them to fire a deadly volley and then gallop away. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Cav_Spear_Fire_Cavalry These cavalry are a sword in their general’s hand, ready to slice into a battle line. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Cav_Spear_Great_Guard Only the very best samurai are chosen for this spear-armed cavalry unit. The presence of such revered warriors encourages nearby comrades. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Cav_Spear_Light_Cavalry These mounted samurai are armed with short spears and are best used to disrupt enemy missile units and to chase routing foes. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Cav_Spear_Naginata_Warrior_Monks Fear and faith are powerful weapons. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Cav_Spear_Yari_Cavalry Each yari cavalry samurai is armed with a long spear that makes him particularly deadly when swiftly charging into combat. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Cav_Sword_Katana_Cavalry These heavy cavalry are shock troops intended to charge home and cut down enemies with their katana swords. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Galleon_Black_Ship The Black Ship is a heavily armed trader, usually carrying valuable cargo. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Galleon_Nanban_Trade_Ship This European merchant ship is armed with powerful cannons as defence against pirate raids. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Gen_Taisho The duty of this loyal samurai bodyguard is to protect their general from harm, whatever the risk to their own lives. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Cav_Naginata_Cav These fearsome cavalrymen are armed with deadly naginatas, making them formidable in close combat. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Cav_Onna_Bushi_Heroine These female warriors are powerful and deadly experts in ranged and close combat. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Cav_Samurai_Cavalry These mounted samurai can ride quickly to key areas of the battlefield, firing arrows as they go. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Cav_Samurai_Hero A warrior has a value far above ten thousand lesser men. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Gen_Bodyguard These loyal bodyguards protect their general from harm, regardless of the risk to their own lives. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Heavy_Ship_Heavy_Ship_Attendants These large and powerful vessels are powerful all-round weapons for any sea-going general. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Heavy_Ship_Heavy_Ship_Samurai These large vessels are strong enough to take on any opponent, but perhaps not swift enough to catch some. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Bow_Attendants These archers are average shots with a good range, providing deadly support for close combat troops. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Bow_Levy These light infantry archers are used to screen a front line, and harass enemies with long range arrow volleys. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Bow_Warrior_Monks These skilled warrior monks can fire arrows at distant enemies with every expectation of doing bloody work. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Fire_Bomb_Throwers It takes a very brave man to swing a bomb around his head on a rope! True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Naginata_Attendants These attendants are armed with long-bladed naginatas. Polearms give a skilled user a long reach during close-in fights. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Naginata_Levy These fairly reliable troops carry fearsome naginatas, long polearms that are deadly against any opponents. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Naginata_Warrior_Monk_Hero These warrior monks wield fearsome naginata, long polearms that are effective against cavalry and infantry alike. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Naginata_Warrior_Monks Unshakeable faith, unsurpassed skills, and great courage make monks men to be respected on the battlefield. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Onna_Bushi These elite warrior ladies carry deadly naginatas. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Samurai_Infantry Samurai infantry well able to fight in melee and with the bow, making them superb all-purpose warriors. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Sword_Attendants These powerful shock troops are deadly when they charge home, and excellent in close combat. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Tetsubo_Monk_Hero A large stick in the hands of a man of faith can be a very persuasive argument. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Light_Ship_Light_Ship_Attendants These small, fast moving vessels are excellent for harassing an enemy fleet from a distance. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Light_Ship_Light_Ship_Pirate Pirate light ships close rapidly with their victims, boarding them before they have time to react. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Light_Ship_Light_Ship_Samurai These small vessels are excellent for swiftly picking off vulnerable enemy ships. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Medium_Ship_Fire_Bomb_Medium_Ship Firebomb ships can rain down death upon enemies, assuming they are foolish enough to remain within range. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Medium_Ship_Medium_Ship_Attendants These ships are well able to handle themselves in battle against similar and smaller vessels. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Medium_Ship_Medium_Ship_Pirate Pirate ships attack by closing with the enemy, and then boarding in short, savage attacks. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Medium_Ship_Medium_Ship_Samurai Samurai medium ships are useful for any sea-going general being both fairly swift sailors and fairly strong combatants. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Genpei_Trade_Ship_Trade_Ship Trade ships are built to carry cargo; in combat they are often more of a liability than an asset. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Heavy_Ship_Heavy_Bune Heavy bunes are the mainstay of a fleet. Each carries large detachments of soldiers and bow-armed troops to attack enemy vessels. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Heavy_Ship_Nihon_Maru This mighty vessel is the Shogun’s personal flagship, and his presence at sea encourages nearby ships to fight hard and with great courage. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Heavy_Ship_O_Ataka_Bune This colossal ship is a large and improved version of the heavy bune, its hull reinforced by iron plating. It carries a large detachment of soldiers. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Heavy_Naginata_Marathon_Monks Faith builds the body, and faith makes outstanding warriors. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Heavy_Naginata_Samurai These samurai are armed with long-bladed naginata. Polearms have a very effective reach in melee fighting. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Heavy_Naginata_Warrior_Monk_Hero Though few in number, these heroic monks are great of heart and skill. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Heavy_Naginata_Warrior_Monks These warrior monks wield fearsome naginata: long polearms effective against cavalry and infantry alike. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Heavy_Onna_Bushi These elite ladies are as deadly as they are elegant, and carry the fearsome naginata. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Heavy_Warrior_Nuns Spiritual harmony and beauty should not be mistaken for weakness. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Bow_Ashigaru Bow ashigaru are light foot archers used to screen the front line, harassing enemies with long range volleys of arrows. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Bow_Bandits Banditry teaches a man much that is useful in warfare, such as striking from an unexpected direction. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Bow_Hero Exceptionally skilful archers capable of raining fire arrows down upon the enemy. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Bow_Samurai These samurai archers are superb shots with an excellent range and the ability to fire an accurate volley of flaming arrows. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Bow_Wako Bow wako harass the enemy at a distance with impressive arrow volleys. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Bow_Warrior_Monks These skilled warrior monks can fire arrows at distant enemies with every expectation of doing terrible damage. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Daikyu_Samurai When archer and bow are as one, anything is possible. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Heavy_Gunners For some targets a simple musket is disrespectful. Better by far to use a heavy gun. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Ashigaru These ashigaru troops are armed with matchlock arquebuses and pepper the enemy with long range, mass volleys. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Ashigaru_Otomo These ashigaru troops are armed with matchlock arquebuses and can pepper the enemy with long range, mass volleys. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Samurai These samurai are armed with matchlock guns and harass the enemy with long range, massed volleys of fire. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Samurai_Otomo These samurai are armed with matchlock guns and harass the enemy with long range, massed volleys of fire. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Warrior_Monks Warrior monks armed with matchlocks that fire devastating massed volleys into enemy ranks. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Missile_Portuguese_Tercos Armed with matchlocks and swords and armoured in European style, these Portuguese soldiers are dangerous foes. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Spear_Bulletproof_Samurai It takes true samurai to charge into musket fire – and prevail! True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Spear_Extra_Long_Yari_Ashigaru These men carry exceptionally long spears, pikes in effect, making them extremely dangerous to cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Spear_Yari_Ashigaru These ashigaru are armed with long spears for use in close combat or to make an almost-impenetrable defence against cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Spear_Yari_Hero These masters of the spear are excellent defensive troops, deadly to enemy cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Spear_Yari_Samurai These spear-wielding warriors can be used to lead the charge or to form a defensive wall of spears. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Special_Fire_Bomb_Throwers It takes a brave man to swing an explosive around on a rope! These men honour their lord by hurling dangerous loads of fire at the enemy! True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Special_Kisho_Ninjas These ninja are virtually undetectable in battle, capable of carrying out deadly surprise attacks. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Sword_Katana_Ashigaru Katana ashigaru are heavy, sword-armed infantry who form part of the main line and fight in melee against enemy infantry. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Sword_Katana_Hero These masters of the sword are incredibly skilful in hand-to-hand combat. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Sword_Katana_Samurai These are elite heavy infantry armed with katana; expertly crafted two-handed swords that are a perfect combination of sharpness and resilience. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Sword_Katana_Wako Wako pirates are armed with incredibly sharp katana swords. They are fierce fighters and excellent against spearmen. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Sword_Nodachi_Samurai These foot warriors carry large and heavy no-dachi swords and have a fearsome charge when in battle. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Sword_Samurai_Retainers These heavy foot samurai carry katanas, and are trusted by the daimyo to be a castle’s last line of defence. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Sword_Wako_Raiders Piracy prepares men to fight unfairly and with deceit. A wise commander uses these skills. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Light_Ship_Bow_Ship A bow ship is small, fast and manned by archers who bombard enemy crews. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Light_Ship_Fire_Bomb_Ship These ships are small, fast, and carry fire bomb throwers who hurl explosive grenades at enemy ships. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Light_Ship_Matchlock_Kobaya_Otomo This light ship only carries a small number of warriors each armed with a deadly matchlock arquebus. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Light_Ship_Matchlock_Ship This light ship only carries a small number of warriors each armed with a deadly matchlock arquebus. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Light_Ship_Siege_Tower_Ship This ship has a high tower filled with missile troops who can fire down upon enemy sailors and soldiers on deck. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Medium_Ship_Medium_Bune These ships are good all-rounders: dependable sailors, strong enough for battle without sacrificing too much speed. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Medium_Ship_Sengoku_Bune These medium-sized ships have a single mast and sail which can give them extra speed to chase down and attack slower vessels. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Medium_Ship_Wako_Medium_Bune These medium-sized ships are good all-purpose sailers: big enough for battle without being slow and cumbersome. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Placeholder Placeholder True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Sh_Cav_Bow_Cavalry_Hero Precise and quick, these men can snipe at enemies and hold their own if cornered. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Sh_Cav_Kat_Cavalry_Hero These heavily-armoured men wield their blades with a brutal expertise. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Sh_Cav_Yari_Cavalry_Hero These men are expert horsemen with a devastating charge, and resolute morale in the face of counter-attacks. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Sh_Inf_Matchlock_Hero Armed with a beautifully crafted gun, a hero puts his marksmanship to deadly use. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Sh_Inf_Naginata_Hero The deadly naginata is effective against all comers, especially in the hands of an expert. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Sh_Inf_Naginata_Heroine In the hands of a great heroine, the naginata is a graceful whirl of steel and bloody death. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Sh_Inf_Ninja_Hero Masters of stealth, ninja heroes are dealers of swift and silent death. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Sh_Inf_Nodachi_Hero These mighty warriors charge into battle carrying the fearsome two-handed no dachi. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Sh_Inf_Tetsubo_Hero As strong as Oni, these mighty warriors carry the tetsubo or war club. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Trade_Ship_Red_Seal_Ship A red seal ship is a large trading vessel. Despite its size, it is still largely defenceless. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Trade_Ship_Trade_Ship These ships are unarmed. Built for trade rather than battle, they should avoid any fighting. True
unit_description_texts_description_text_Trade_Ship_Wako_Trade_Ship This vessel carries a crew of wako pirates who prey on smaller, weaker vessels while pretending to be innocent traders. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_European_Cannons \n\nThese guns are carefully deployed at the start of a battle. They must be well defended, as the gun crew is few and vulnerable. European cannons are slow to fire and relatively inaccurate, but this matters not a jot when the target is as large as a castle wall! Once in place, they have a long range and do great damage to defensive structures.\n\nThe Sengoku Jidai marked a massive shift in the pattern of Japanese warfare. Previously, warfare had been a matter of single combat between samurai, but increases in the size of armies and battles along with the introduction of gunpowder meant that daimyo needed to embrace modern warfare tactics to survive. In 1543, the Japanese had their first contact with the Portuguese, who soon established the ‘nanban’ trade, providing the Japanese with arquebuses and cannons. Tokugawa Ieyasu used such cannons when he won the siege of Osaka, indisputably establishing himself as Shogun. Ironically, it was Ieyasu’s grandson, Tokugawa Iemitsu, who put an end to the trade when his ‘sakoku’ policy stopped all foreigners from entering Japan and closed the country until 1853. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Fire_Projecting_Mangonels \n\nBecause of its small size and limited throwing ability, the mangonel does not have the “punch” of a cannon, so rather than destroying the walls of a castle, it simply ignores them by hitting what’s on the other side. The mangonel’s projectiles are small earthenware bombs, filled with gunpowder and placed in the bucket at the end. The fuse is then lit and the bomb is thrown in an arc over any obstacle. Hopefully, when the bombs hit the ground they explode, spreading flames everywhere, panicking anyone nearby and setting fire to any surrounding buildings. Once deployed, a mangonel must be defended, as its crew are few and vulnerable to attack.\n\nHistorically, the Japanese built isolated fortresses rather than walled towns, rendering the siege warfare perfected by the Chinese and Mongols impractical. Instead of trying to batter the walls down, Japanese attackers would storm a fortress and the defenders would sally out to meet them. This was much more in keeping with their idea of honourable warfare where enemies would meet face-to-face on the battlefield! When siege weapons were used, such as traction trebuchets or mangonels, they would more often be used for anti-personnel purposes rather than to directly aid the siege. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Fire_Rockets \n\nBecause they are launched from hand-held arquebuses, fire rockets are much more mobile than siege weapons. However, they are less powerful and accurate than cannons, and are not used to batter down the walls of a castle. Instead they fire over the top of walls: the rockets’ high arc and long range lets them rain down on the enemy below, setting buildings alight, sowing panic and destroying morale in the process.\n\nDuring the Sengoku Jidai, the Japanese used incendiary weapons such as fire bombs and fire rockets in naval warfare. Kobayakawa Takakage of the Mori clan used rocket-loaded arquebuses to bombard enemy ships, and many vessels would carry a unit of fire bombers or a small catapult to launch flammable projectiles. Japanese vessels resembled large, floating wooden castles, and another tactic was to simply moor your ship next to your enemy, board it and fight to the death as if the ships were fortifications on land!   True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Hand_Mortars \n\nAs gunpowder weapons hand mortars are, of course, noisy and smelly, but they have the advantage of using indirect fire thanks to the high trajectory of the missiles. The men have to be well trained to use them. Despite the danger they can pose to an enemy, they are vulnerable in close combat, and the small numerical strength of the unit means that they can be quickly overwhelmed. They may very well see discretion as a good course of action and break when charged. \n\nHand mortars might be considered dangerous for the user, but lack of concern for danger seems to have been something the Hojo regularly flirted with. Rather than take his duties as shikken of the Kamakura Shogunate seriously, Hojo Takatoki did anything and everything else. He was certainly considered “barely sane” by his contemporaries. He enjoyed the finer things of life, regardless of the dishonour that his rather louche and un-samurai ways brought to his name and family. The “Taiheiki” chronicle of medieval Japan says “By day and by night, with wanton acts he dishonoured his glorious ancestors under the ground; in the morning and in the evening, with vain merriment he invited ruin in his lifetime.” True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin__Inf_Line_Republican_Infantry \n\nRepublican infantry fight in line, attacking their enemies with disciplined rifle fire delivered in volleys. They are trained in a European style, and have all the strengths associated with line infantry. They can maintain a good rate of fire thanks to their reloading speeds, are good shots, and have good morale as a result of constant drill. Their rifles are good quality weapons, capable of inflicting terrible wounds. In close combat they will give a reasonable account of themselves, but will suffer if cavalry are allowed to attack them. \n\nHistorically, the troops of the Ezo Republic were under Franco-Japanese command, with French military advisors apparently doing a good deal more than just “advising” their Japanese counterparts. One French officer, Jules Brunet, was particularly active in his support for the Ezo Republic. He considered that French interests would be well served by a French-supported Ezo victory, and ignored orders to return to France after the collapse of the Shogunate. He must have done his duty as a soldier because the victorious Imperial government demanded his return for punishment from France after the Ezo Republic was overrun. Brunet did not go back, and his support for Ezo was eventually forgiven. After a long fighting career including service in the Franco-Prussian War and in Mexico, Brunet reached the rank of general in the French Army. His actions partly inspired the movie, “The Last Samurai” starring Tom Cruise. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Art_Armstrong_Guns \n\nArmstrong guns are modern artillery pieces that can bombard the enemy at very long range with deadly and terrifying explosive shells. They are accurate and easy for their crews to reload but, like most artillery, these guns can be overrun in close combat. Their crews are not numerous, and are not trained to fight in hand-to-hand battle. Their morale, though, is good, as they take pride in using the some of the most modern and powerful artillery available. \n\nWilliam Armstrong (1810-1900) was one of the engineering titans of Victorian Britain, and a prodigious inventor of mechanical devices. This talent gained him a Fellowship of the Royal Society, and made him an extremely rich man. His design for the built-up barrel of the breech-loading “Armstrong gun” was clever, making it extremely strong and accurate; there was even a rather modern “squeeze bore” design that narrowed the barrel very slightly at the muzzle. While the British war department continued to purchase muzzle loaders, Armstrong supplied both sides in the American Civil War. His other engineering interests were impressive. His home at Cragside in Northumberland had its own hydro-electric power plant. For decades his shipyards made cruisers and battleships for the Royal Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy. Railway locomotives were another profitable enterprise. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Art_Gatling_Guns \n\nGatling guns are a form of artillery, although they are only really useful against men. The guns have an exceptionally high rate of fire, good range, and do terrible slaughter. Accuracy is adequate, although this would be considered far too good by anyone being targeted! With numerically small crews, Gatling guns are weak in close combat, but this is not their role. They should be used to deliver devastating fire support. \n\nDr Richard J Gatling invented his mechanical masterpiece as a way of making war less horrible. He genuinely felt that if he could bring superior firepower to the battlefield, there would be a lessened need for soldiers to go into harm’s way. Instead, he gave armies a new way to kill on a massive scale. \n\nThe Gatling gun was not an automatic weapon. The user had to crank the gun, so that as each barrels rotated, it was loaded, fired and the spent cartridge extracted, the equivalent of having several rifles fired one after another. Unlike a machine gun, however, it handled stoppages and misfires as a matter of course: a defective cartridge would simply be pulled from a breech and a fresh one loaded as the barrels went around. \n\nElectrically-powered Gatling guns are still in use today. The GAU-8/A Avenger in the nose of the USAF’s Thunderbolt II ground attack aircraft is a truly formidable weapon. Occasionally, smaller “mini-guns” also feature as exceptionally macho weapons for the noisier kind of Hollywood action hero. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Art_Parrot_Guns \n\nThese muzzle-loading artillery pieces are deadly weapons indeed, although somewhat slow to reload. However, their long range and accuracy make “Parrott rifles” extremely useful weapons for long range bombardments against almost any enemy. To those under bombardment it feels like they can drop devastating explosive shells almost anywhere! However, like all artillery, the crews will be quickly overrun in close combat, or if left exposed, to cavalry attack. \n\nA Parrott rifle, named after its inventor, Robert Parker Parrott, was an impressive piece of metalworking, no matter what its actual size. The cast iron barrel was reinforced by a wrought iron band around the breech end, but this was not always enough to prevent a gun from bursting. Parrott’s flash of genius was in the way he made the guns, putting on the band red hot, and cooling the entire assembly by pouring water down the muzzle. This made the weapons stronger than other muzzle loaders. It was then a straightforward matter to machine cut the rifling grooves. \n\nBoth sides in the American Civil War used Parrott rifles, with a 300-pounder, 10 inch bore example being used against Fort Sumter in 1863. This was probably the largest land Parrott gun used, although naval examples did fire 200-pounder shells. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Art_Wooden_Cannons \n\nWooden cannons are, as the name suggests, made of wood. This makes them somewhat ramshackle in their operations, with a slow reload rate. They also have poor accuracy, if only because the barrel is warped every time the piece is fired. Not many rounds can be safely fired from a wooden cannon before it must be considered useless or even lethal to its crew. The small numbers of crew mean that it is vulnerable in close combat, and the men suffer low morale through being expected to man such a dubious weapon. It does, however, do a reasonable amount of damage against buildings. \n\nWood leaves a good deal to be desired as a material for gun barrels, apart from the fact that it is exceptionally cheap. Wooden barrels, inevitably, split sooner or later in use, peppering the gun crew with lethal splinters; added to their poor accuracy, it made them a desperate measure for any general. \n\nOddly, the most effective wooden guns created in the nineteenth century were the least lethal: they were actually incapable of killing anyone! In the American Civil War “Quaker guns” (Quakers would not kill, and neither would these guns) were made entirely of wood, as they were only logs carefully painted to look like iron and mounted on limbers to simulate artillery pieces. As tools of deception Quaker guns were extremely successful. Confederate generals regularly used them to deceive their Northern opponents into thinking that their positions were highly fortified, often retreating and leaving the logs-as-guns to carry on the defence! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Bow_Ki \n\nThese mounted archers are defiantly traditional, or old-fashioned, in their approach to warfare, but no less deadly for that. An enemy killed by an arrow is just as dead as one shot by a bullet. Armed with powerful Japanese bows, the bow ki samurai can pepper enemy units at a distance, and rapidly move out of trouble if threatened. Long years of dedication mean that they are very good, very quick shots; the bushido code gives them good morale in battle. However, they are vulnerable to rifle fire and will suffer badly if they are ever in close combat against yari-armed troops. \n\nSamurai warfare has centuries-old traditions, and among the oldest of those is to use the bow from horseback. This was the way of samurai warfare long before the katana became the signature armament of this warrior class. As mounted bowmen, samurai were magnificently dangerous enemies, and even retained the advantage in combat against matchlock-armed troops. As in Europe, the extinction of bow-armed troops on the battlefield had nothing to do with their combat effectiveness. It was entirely due to the difficulty of training them: it took years for an archer to become a truly excellent combat bowman. Almost any illiterate idiot could be taught to use a matchlock and point the noisy, business end at the enemy. Once this was understood samurai bowmen were doomed, slain by gold (or its lack), not bullets. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Carbine_Cavalry \n\nCarbine cavalry can produce volleys of accurate, rapid and deadly fire. This allows them to act as fast-moving support units for attacks, and to shore up crumbling defensive positions. If necessary, they can dismount and act as infantry. Although they have good morale and are confident fighters in close combat, they are less effective against other cavalry. Like other cavalrymen, they die quickly if left exposed to massed rifle fire or artillery bombardment. \n\nA carbine was a shortened smoothbore musket for use by mounted troops. Trying to muzzle load a full length weapon and keep a horse under control in the middle of battle was difficult, to say the least, and the solution was to cut down the barrel. Over the years, the carbine was further redesigned to use a smaller calibre bullet, making it a lighter, handier weapon for a horseman. It was a natural progression to include breech-loading (with brass cartridges) in carbine design. The result was a weapon that was deadly in the right hands, but could be used from the back of a horse. If greater accuracy was needed, then carbine-armed soldiers could dismount and fight as dragoons. \n\nOddly, much the same kind of process is going on today. Standard infantry rifles have become shorter over the last few years to make them easier to use in close urban combat and fire out of armoured personnel carriers. A number of very cut-down “commando” rifles have also been produced for tank crews. In the tight spaces of an armoured vehicle, it makes good sense to give your soldiers short guns. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Imperial_Guard_Cavalry \n\nThese cavalrymen are extremely able horsemen and can move quickly across the battlefield to harass enemy flanks or reinforce a dangerous position. They are armed with carbines and are well trained in their use, giving them very good accuracy and reload times. If necessary, they can even dismount to deliver slightly more effective fire. Unlike some other missile-firing troops, the Imperial Guard are also rather handy in close combat against infantry. They will suffer casualties in pitched battles against other cavalry, and are no more immune than anyone else to the killing power of an artillery bombardment. \n\nIt is difficult to reload any kind of weapon, control a horse and fight a battle at the same time. Because of this simple truth, the Spencer repeating carbine and similar weapons were a godsend to cavalrymen. The carbine saw extensive use in the American Civil War, and although originally Northern weapons, the Spencer carbines, and the longer Spencer rifles, were captured and used by the South in substantial numbers. The Spencer mechanism used a lever to open the breech and extract a fired cartridge, while a spring-loaded tube in the stock fed a new round into the chamber. The gun could be fired as fast as the gunner could work the lever and pull the trigger. This meant that sometimes fire was stopped as the gunners could no longer see through the dense clouds of smoke they had just created! The carbine fired a big .56 inch calibre bullet that could drop a man in his tracks. Thanks to the lever action of the carbine the cartridge including charge and bullet could not be too long, so it was rather underpowered, giving the gun a relatively short range. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Revolver_Cavalry \n\nThese pistol-armed cavalrymen can move quickly across the battlefield to harass enemy flanks, and keep enemy cavalry at bay. The revolvers they carry give them a good deal of short-ranged, rapid firepower, but they are vulnerable in melee. A good general also makes sure that they are not left exposed to artillery fire or massed gun fire from long ranged units. They do, however, have good morale and will break only rarely. \n\nA late-19th Century revolver was a single action gun: the user had to pull back the hammer to revolve the cylinder and cock the weapon before squeezing the trigger. Double-action revolvers do everything for each trigger pull. The arrival of brass cartridges with bullet, gunpowder and primer cap in one had made revolvers a good deal safer for the user. Percussion cap revolvers did sometimes explode, causing terrible injuries to the unlucky shooter. \n\nMany European governments expected officers to purchase their own side arms, and only insisted that the guns used government-issue ammunition. This resulted in a wide range of “service” revolvers being made and carried into action. Quality and workmanship varied according to the private income of the officer doing the buying. \n\nDuring the American Civil War the practice of carrying many pistols into action had been rediscovered, as this allowed a unit of (usually irregular) troops to lay down a horrendous amount of fire before withdrawing to reload. Almost any gun available would be pressed into use. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Samurai_Hero \n\nSamurai heroes are, in short, a paragon of the samurai martial virtues and skills, figures almost from legend. They carry bows and katana swords, and have long years of practice in their use. They are horsemen almost without equal. Those years of training mean that they can fire rapidly on enemies, accurately peppering them with arrows at surprisingly long range, then close with their foes to give bravura demonstrations of swordsmanship. As might be expected, heroes have very good morale, and can be relied on to fight in almost all circumstances. They are, however, only mortal when facing rifle bullets and artillery shells, and it is a foolish general who sends them into a headlong attack against spear-armed infantry. \n\nAt their best, samurai were the embodiment of all the heroic, warrior virtues: skilled, brave, and honourable. The code of bushido defined exactly how they were to serve their masters whether by living well or dying well. Life and death were irrelevant in the performance of duty, but this was not simple fatalism or brutality; it meant that attempting to do the right thing and dying in the process was not failure. Upholding honour was expected, and opponents with honour were respected too. The traditions of bushido, honour and duty, could inspire samurai to acts of insane bravery against all odds. The demands of modern warfare, on the other hand, eventually had a terrible, corrosive effect on bushido, emphasising obedience and duty at the expense of honour and doing the right thing. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Spear_Shogunate_Guard_Cavalry \n\nArmed with lances, the guard cavalry are rather good in melee combat. They are extremely useful against other cavalry, where their lances give them an advantage in reach. They are well trained, and have good morale as a result, and can be relied on in most circumstances. A wise general, though, does not commit them rashly against spear- or yari-armed infantry, and tries to keep them safe from rifle fire. All their gallantry will not save these guard lancers from a hail of bullets! \n\nDespite the increasing lethality of late nineteenth century weapons, cavalry remained an important force on the battlefield. They were the only force of exploitation, tactical and strategic, available to a general: infantry simply could not march fast enough to take advantage of any gaps in enemy lines. There was, however, a good deal of debate about how cavalry should be armed, with many favouring carbines; this was something that many cavalrymen, heirs to all the “dash and fire” of previous generations, thought reduced them to the status of mounted infantry. In armies that followed the French fashion there was a definite tendency to favour the charge, and this resulted in lancers and sabre-armed cavalry surviving for longer than was probably justified. A lancer had to get within a spear’s length of a target before he could do any harm. A carbine-armed chasseur could kill a man at a distance. For all his courage, technology was not on the side of the lancer. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Spear_Yari_Ki \n\nThere is much to be said in favour of the traditional cavalry charge, an attack that strikes fear into the hearts of the enemy as you thunder forwards. However, with the introduction of modern weapons the charge should be used with some caution, and only employed when the desired effect will be achieved. Best employed against enemy cavalry, yari ki should never be sent against rifle and spear units or left in prolonged melee combat. Instead they should be used for flanking manoeuvres and attacks where they can make a quick getaway. \n\nHorses tend to play minor roles in the mythology of Japan. More importance is often placed on powerful weapons and great deeds. However, Chokwaro, one of the eight Taoist immortals, who was believed to be a great necromancer, was accompanied everywhere by a white horse that could carry him great distances. In China he is often shown with a bamboo tube, but in Japan his emblem is a gourd. According to legend it is from this gourd that his white horse rides forth. When Chokwaro pours water from it or spits into it the horse appears and, never tiring, carries him for many miles. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Sword_Republican_Guard_Cav \n\nThese guard cavalrymen are a capable force, if they can close with their opponents. Unlike other cavalrymen, they do not simply rely on the shock and impact of their initial attacks to disrupt and defeat enemy units. They should charge home and then remain in close combat, fighting with their sabres. Their training and weaponry make them effective in close combat both on attack and defence. However, they are likely to suffer if sent against yari-armed units, if left exposed to rifle fire, or if subjected to artillery bombardment. Used correctly, however, they will be a magnificent close combat force, able to keep fighting even when taking casualties thanks to their high morale. \n\nDespite the fact that modern-pattern rifles and their associated tactics were making swords largely obsolete on the battlefield as the main armament for troops, most European armies continued to issue them to their cavalry soldiers. Swords were not just for show, either: they were considered effective weapons in trained hands if the cavalryman could close with his target. Indeed, development work on new swords would continue in Europe for more than 40 years after the Boshin War. This eventually resulted in a very fine weapon: the British Army’s 1908 Pattern cavalry sword, probably the best sword ever generally issued to cavalrymen. This was not a sabre designed for slashing, but a long, straight blade designed to spear a target. Other armies followed, including the US Army with its 1913 design. This sword was the work of George S Patton, now usually remembered as a larger-than-life tank general in the Second World War, and not as a superb swordsman, horseman and Olympic athlete. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Cav_Sword_Sabre_Cavalry \n\nThese splendid cavalrymen are best employed to flank the enemy line, and to charge into enemy infantry in the hope of disrupting their formations and driving them from the field. Their sabres are excellent melee weapons, but lack the reach to get to grips properly with spear-armed infantry or cavalry lancers. Sabre cavalry can be used to overrun artillery units, but they should not be needlessly exposed to artillery fire. Like many dashing horsemen, sabre cavalry have good morale, as they are convinced that they are a cut above ordinary soldiers! \n\nIt seems a little odd that the Japanese, with a centuries-old tradition of exquisite swordsmithing, would abandon the deadly and beautiful katana in favour of a machine-produced foreign weapon like the sabre. However, thousands of sabres produced in German and English factories were exported across the world, and Japan received its fair share of blades; they were adopted as symbols of modernity. Sabres, however, were not particularly modern, or particularly European or American. The weapon has Turkish roots, and was copied by European powers. It is, however, superbly designed for slashing attacks from horseback, and this undoubtedly was the reason it was so widely adopted. In Europe, the sabre was regularly used to disperse troublesome mobs: the Russian Cossacks became notorious for their use of the sabre and even the British authorities had ordered cavalrymen to use their sabres against civilians on more than one occasion. On the battlefield, however, the days of the sabre were numbered: firepower was the main method of killing. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Gen_Bodyguard \n\nArmed and equipped in European style, this general’s bodyguard unit are there to keep their commander from being personally bothered by enemies. His job is to move along the line of battle, issuing orders and offering morale support to his troops. His special abilities more than make up for the unit’s lack of direct, concrete fighting strength. It is most definitely not his task to get involved in fighting the enemy. The small numerical size of the bodyguard means that the general will not survive for long in close combat, even though his men carry sabres. It is also a good idea to keep the general out of range of enemy sharpshooters and artillery: death does not respect the gold braid on a general’s epaulettes. \n\nWhile 19th Century generals were killed in action, the size, scope and range of activities carried out by a modern army of the period meant that being in the thick of things was the one place it made little or no sense to be. A general needed to be mobile, and to keep his wits (and possibly a good telescope) about him if he was to have any chance of controlling a battle. While divisional commanders might lead a charge, it was now the army commander’s job to supervise and co-ordinate. This was a pattern of command that Napoleon had understood perfectly years earlier, but it applied more than ever. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Gen_Hatamoto \n\nIt is a terrible temptation for all generals to become involved in the fighting, but this is not their first duty in battle. It is their task to inspire, setting an example in courage, but most importantly supporting and encouraging their men to greater efforts. To this end, generals provide a morale bonus to all nearby friendly units, and it is this that makes them far more useful than just being a good close combat unit. As might be expected, generals and their entourages have very good morale and are unlikely to run in battle. They are not invincible, however, and can be shot down like other men; they are also likely to take casualties if pitched in against yari-armed troops. \n\nThe traditional forms of command are a good way of getting killed on a 19th Century battlefield because a bullet or shell inconveniently ignores personal bravery when it arrives. The man who leads from the front without considering the bigger picture will only be the first man killed, not a good general. This, however, almost seems a complete negation of the spirit of bushido, of being a warrior. Good commanders were the ones who learned that there was a deeper truth in not being killed in a futile fashion, no matter what traditional honour might have dictated. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Gun_Boat_Chiyodagata \n\nThe Chiyodagata is a fast-moving gun boat which is best employed in support of larger vessels. Manoeuvrability is her greatest asset, along with affordability. The decks are crewed by rifle-armed sailors who also man the limited number of cannon she carries. This type is weak against any type of artillery, which encourages low morale among the crew as they fear attack from larger vessels. \n\nThe original Chiyodagata was the first steam warship built in Japan. She was constructed in 1863 by Ishikawajima shipbuilders, who went on to design the murasame class of destroyers used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. \n\nAlthough the Chiyodagata was commissioned as part of the Tokugawa navy, she changed hands several times during the course of the Boshin War. The first instance was following the Battle of Hakodate Bay where she was grounded and then captured by Imperial forces. She was particularly busy in 1868 when she changed hands twice; however, a year later she was stricken from the naval roster, and ended her life as a whaling ship. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Imperial_Guard \n\nThe guard are defenders of the Emperor’s honour without equal. They are line infantry, and deliver controlled and accurate volleys of rifle fire into the ranks of the enemy. Armed with breech-loading rifles, the guard are well-trained by their foreign advisors, keeping up a fast reload at speed and good rate of fire. They are also confident of their own abilities, and have good morale as a result. This confidence also raises the spirits of nearby friendly troops. An Imperial general need have no fear about committing these men to close combat, as they will give good account of themselves. \n\nBreech-loading rifles brought new calculations to bear in military affairs. The old Napoleonic tactics had proven deadly during the American Civil War when there was a mismatch between the arms carried by the respective firing lines. Troops armed with rifle-muskets simply couldn’t match the pace of firing of breech-loaders, and died in great numbers; courage simply was not an answer when facing a rifle that could be fired six or seven times while a musket was reloaded. The breech-loader also made possible the one-sided colonial victories won by European armies against native troops of all kinds. In the time it took, say, a Zulu to charge into action, a British redcoat could fire many shots from a large-bore rifle. Warfare became “dashed unsporting” as various great powers realised they could grab any land they chose. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Infanterie_de_marine \n\nThese French line infantry are tough, capable soldiers, well used to fighting in all corners of the world and dealing with whatever hardships and enemies of France they encounter. They are armed with modern breech-loading rifles and are well trained in their use. This allows them to pour accurate and rapid fire into enemies stupid enough to act as targets. They are also well able to charge into melee and give a good account of themselves. As Frenchmen they naturally have élan, and this gives them very good melee in most circumstances. Like all infantry, however, bravery and dash are no use when bombarded by artillery. \n\nThe infanterie de marine could trace their origins back to 1622, when the troupes de marine were established by Cardinal Richelieu, Louis XIII’s chief minister. Apart from being a brilliant administrator and statesman, he was also used later as the chief villain in Dumas’ tale, “The Three Musketeers”; sadly for Richelieu’s other achievements, that’s how most people know of him. The troupes de marine were intended to fight overseas, and in the new French colonies. This meant they saw a good deal more action than most of the French army, usually against troublesome British fellows. Oddly, infanterie de marine weren’t directly controlled by the French Navy, but by the Ministere de la Marine, the civil servants who ran the navy and also the French colonies. It suited the Ministry to divert marines to keep the colonies in order, rather than to help the Navy! As a result, the Navy had to recruit its own “fusiliers-marins” to replace what should have been its marines. The Ministere de la Marine, glad to keep the infanterie de marine, let them get on with it. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Kihetai \n\nThese men have been trained to deliver disciplined volleys of gunfire into enemy formations. They are well drilled, and can maintain a good rate of fire and be fairly accurate too. Their weapons are capable of inflicting horrible wounds, like most modern large-bore rifles. The Kihetai have a robust sense of morale, but their resilience is not bottomless. They are not particularly competent in close combat, and will suffer if they are overrun by a cavalry attack. \n\nThe Meiji Restoration saw the foundation of a modern army and navy for Japan. Many of the senior officers in the Imperial Japanese Army were natives of Choshu, and this lead to tensions with the Imperial Japanese Navy, where men from Satsuma occupied the top jobs. The two domains had a long traditional enmity, and this continued as a not-so-covert struggle for dominance in Japanese affairs between the Army and the Navy. Favouritism in both services made sure that men of Choshu and Satsuma were usually favoured for promotion in the services, further entrenching the rivalry. This was to have profound consequences for Japanese politics, diplomacy, and even the course of the Second World War. Well before then, however, the situation became so bad that Army officers from regions other than Choshu actually formed a secret society, the Double Leaf Society, to root out “corrupt” officers. Their fanaticism, and the fanaticism of other secret groups, also spilled out into wider politics. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Republican_Guard_Infantry \n\nGuard infantry fight in the same manner as all line infantry: by firing accurate volleys into the enemy, and doing so with unwavering discipline. The guard are trained to a very high standard, and have good reloading speeds and are good marksmen to boot. Their breech-loading rifles are capable of inflicting horrible wounds on anyone unlucky enough to be hit. As a result of their training and fighting spirit they have very good morale, and their unflappable attitude gives encouragement to nearby friendly units. Finally, in close combat they can give a good account of themselves but are vulnerable to artillery fire like any other men if positioned carelessly on the field. \n\nThe short-lived Ezo Republic relied heavily on French military advisors to train and command its army. The Republic was crushed before it had chance to absorb all the lessons that French officers and NCOs could pass on. The French army was generally held to be the best at the time, and followed a doctrine of “attaque à outrance”, “attack to excess”, or possibly “attack without restraint”. Such a battle philosophy would have found ready listeners in Japan. Had time and events allowed, the French would almost certainly have inculcated their tactical ideas into the Ezo army, and it is very likely that units organised, equipped and trained to be Japanese “poilu” or “hairy ones”, the French slang for infantrymen, would almost certainly have appeared in battle. Frenchmen dreaming of dash, glory and bravery in the face of the enemy should have had a rude awakening in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1. They didn’t wake up, unfortunately, and French troops were ordered forward in “attaque à outrance” against machine guns in the First World War. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Royal_Marines \n\nThese are well-trained and disciplined infantrymen carrying the latest breech-loading rifles available. They are capable of delivering accurate, withering and rapid fire on enemy units and, when they close, can give a very good account of themselves in melee. Given the traditions of the Royal Marines and the Royal Navy they also have excellent morale, making them superior quality line infantry. \n\nRoyal Marines were the British Admiralty’s private land-going army. Although they might look like soldiers and fight like soldiers, they were not part of the British Army. They traced their origins back to 1664, but they formally became marines in 1755. This gave them a long tradition of sea-service and, given the controlled aggression of the Royal Navy over the centuries, plenty of practice in fighting. The example of Admiral Byng’s execution for not attacking the enemy made sure that Royal Navy ships would almost always attack, and that no officer would pass up an opportunity to harm an enemy. \n\nMarines were usually distributed across the whole fleet, and operated guns in sea battles, often with great skill and bravery. Ashore, they were the backbone of most expeditionary forces, and were expected to give a good account of themselves in any situation from a set-piece battle to a cutting-out raid. One peculiar quirk of the Royal Marines (and this in a navy which specialises in quirky behaviour) was the rank of Colonel of Marines. Despite the name, this was given to RN captains who did distinguished service: a nice way of boosting their pay and honouring them. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Shogunate_Guard_Infantry \n\nThe guard fight as line infantry, forming up to deliver controlled and accurate volleys of rifle fire into the ranks of the enemy. They are armed with breech-loading rifles, and their foreign advisors have trained them well. The guns will do terrible damage to their targets, and the men can reload at speed and keep up a good rate of fire. They are also confident of their own abilities, and have good morale as a result. A commanding general need have no fear about committing these men to close combat, as they will also give a good account of themselves in melee. \n\nThe Guard were armed and equipped in the latest French military fashion. This was a deliberate policy, as the French were considered to possess the best army in Europe at the time. This was to be cruelly exposed as a fallacy by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. All well-informed observers were convinced that the French Army would have little trouble in seeing off the upstart Prussians, especially as the French had a Napoleonic tradition of attacking their enemies to the utmost and, it has to be said, of mostly winning wars. It was therefore a bit of a shock that the Prussians reached Paris in the space of a few weeks, having comprehensively defeated the best army in Europe. This eventually gave Prussia the victory it needed to establish its preeminent position within Germany, the real aim of fighting the war in the first place. Despite the blow to French national prestige, the French continued to export arms and military expertise to the rest of the world, although their customers were a little harder to impress in 1872 than they had been in 1869. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Elite_United_States_Marines \n\nThe US Marine Corps are excellent soldiers, and pride themselves on being infantrymen first and foremost. Ashore, they fight as line infantry, using disciplined and effective fire to inflict casualties on the enemy. They carry breech-loading rifles, and these allow them to reload quickly; they are nearly all good shots. They are also perfectly capable of closing with an enemy and giving a good account of themselves in a melee. They have an excellent martial spirit, and are unlikely to break and run. \n\nThe US Marine Corps can claim to be older than the United States, as the Continental Marines, formed in 1775, predate the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Inconveniently, Congress did disband the Marines before re-establishing them as the US Marine Corps in 1798. The Marines ignore such minor matters. By the late 19th Century USMC “leathernecks” (the nickname came from the leather stocks worn to give a military bearing) had seen more action than any US Army troops, and had taken part in expeditions across the world. Their most famous action by this time was probably against the Barbary Pirates, who had decided that US ships were fair game after America broke with Britain. Marines had also been used in Mexico in 1847, and had taken part in the many coastal attacks carried out by the Federal navy during the American Civil War. As a result, the Corps had “institutional experience” in naval, amphibious and infantry warfare. Had the US been asked to commit troops to support either the Shogunate or the Emperor, it would have been Marines who were sent ashore. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Light_Sharpshooters \n\nSharpshooters are best employed to protect the flanks of an army, and to specifically target dangerous enemy units from a safe, for them at least, distance. They are armed with very accurate rifles, and can shoot targets at very long range. Anyone hit is almost certain to be taken out of the fight. They are right to consider themselves a cut above ordinary infantrymen, and this attitude gives them good morale. However, due to their low numbers, they can be vulnerable to being swamped by enemy units in close combat, or ridden down by cavalry. A wise commander keeps them out of such immediate dangers as much as possible. \n\nMany European armies had employed skirmishers, often armed with rifles, from the Napoleonic Wars onwards. Referred to as “rifles” or as some variant of “hunters” such as “chasseurs” or “jaegers”, these men were often elites within their respective army. They were selected on the basis of intelligence and resourcefulness, and often because of a background as poachers or gamekeepers! During the American Civil War units of sharpshooters were raised from among “back country boys” who relied on their skill to feed their families in times of peace. Sharpshooters, whatever they were called, were not expected to fight in open battle in the normal way of things, but to pick off officers and leaders among the enemy ranks. As technology and weaponry improved and telescopic sights became available, their ability to plunge enemy units into disarray grew too. Individual snipers were limited only by the mechanical reliability and quality of their guns, something that came as a terrible shock to many officers supposedly safe behind the lines! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Light_Tosa_Riflemen \n\nTosa riflemen are trained to act as light infantrymen, skirmishers who protect and screen the main line of battle. As such, they are excellent shots with their modern, rapid-fire, repeating rifles, and will do a substantial amount of damage to enemy units if they are not driven off. As might be expected of well-trained troops, they are also confident and have good morale. However, they should not be expected to fight well in close combat, or to last if they are ridden down by enemy cavalry. Used correctly, though, against high value and dangerous enemies, they are a formidable weapon in any general’s arsenal. \n\nTosa was the birthplace of Sakamoto Ryoma (1836-67), a visionary leader of the anti-Tokugawa faction in Japanese society. Although he was a samurai and a traditionalist in some things, such as samurai dress, he was also very open to new ideas: he certainly owned and used a Smith and Wesson rimfire revolver, for example. He had read, and favoured, the American constitution, and felt that a modern Japan would have to throw off its feudal origins and adopt policies of equality among men. His modernism would also lead him to be the leading light in the establishment of a navy to fight the Tokugawa Shogunate: he is regarded as the “father of the Imperial Japanese Navy” for his efforts to give Satsuma and Choshu a navy. He also brokered a peace between these traditional enemies. Such an able man was bound to make enemies, and he was assassinated in Kyoto; the Shinsengumi were blamed at the time. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Light_Yugekitai \n\nYugekitai are a force of guerrilla fighters, irregular troops who can move unseen and strike without warning before melting away into concealment once more. They can hide in woods, move while hidden, and can be deployed away from the main army as an ambushing force. Armed with accurate rifles, they can give a good account of themselves in battle, and even remain hidden while firing. These skills, along with their belief in the rightness of their cause, give them good morale. They are, however, vulnerable to cavalry attacks, and will be quickly ridden down if they are mishandled. They should also not be sent into close combat with any expectation of victory. \n\nIrregular warfare often throws up unlikely protagonists, men with a talent for applied violence who would never get the chance to use it but for a war. Guerillas (the word is Spanish and means “little war”) have a long history, and anyone taking up arms can be a guerrilla. In modern parlance, the term has neutral connotations, as opposed to “freedom fighters” who can be propagandised as the “good guys”. “Terrorists”, “insurgents” or even “bandits” are obviously being portrayed as bad even though they are guerrillas too. In practical terms, there may be little difference in methods between the guerrillas, freedom fighters, terrorists and insurgents: all will use ambush and similar underhand methods to achieve their goals against forces that have conventional military superiority. Guerrillas do not fight fairly, or attack the enemy’s main strength: they attack where the enemy is not; they cause fear out of all proportion to their numbers; and they play a long game of outlasting their foes’ will to win. Guerrillas are a political as well as a military force. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Azure_Dragon_Force \n\nThey are line infantry, and carry modern rifles, which are both accurate and have a reasonable rate of fire. Like most rifles, they have a large bore and do significant damage to targets. The Dragons are not suited to melee combat, and if they are carelessly left unsupported, they might be overwhelmed by a cavalry attack. However, thanks to the martial traditions of Aizu province, they have good morale. \n\nThe troops of Aizu province fought under a set of laws of war that, unusually, outlined how they were to behave towards non-combatants and enemies. For most of Japanese history being on the losing side in battle, or being near a victorious army, was a fairly dangerous affair. Samurai counted their honour by the foes they defeated, and there was little room for mercy. The Aizu rules of war, drawn up at the end of the 18th Century, made a point of forbidding their troops from despoiling enemy lands, looting, and generally behaving like a medieval conquering army. \n\nThe unit was named after a Chinese constellation, the mythological Azure Dragon of the East, a creature associated with the element of wood. The dragon supposedly protected the city of Kyoto, along with the other mythical creatures used to name Aizu combat units. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Black_Bear_Infantry \n\nArmed and equipped in the latest European style, for the most part, these men are steadfast defenders of Satsuma province. They are trained as line infantry to delivering disciplined volleys of rifle fire into enemy formations. They carry foreign-made rifles that are accurate, powerful and quick to reload. Although well motivated and with good morale, the Black Bears should not be rashly sent into close combat. They are also vulnerable to cavalry attacks if they are left in unsupported positions. The exception to their modern equipment is the black bear “wigs”, called koguma, that they wear, giving them a wild, aggressive appearance. \n\nThe Black Bears were raised as troops by the Imperial forces, and yet Satsuma is forever associated with the idea of rebellion against the Emperor and his embrace of the modern world. The two ideas should not be seen as contradictory, as there is a long history in Japan, continuing until 1945, of rebellion by those who consider themselves completely loyal to the Emperor and Japan. Perhaps it is more accurate to say that many rebels have considered themselves loyal to their vision of a better, purer Japan, and hostile to the malign influences around the Imperial Court and government. The person and idea of the Emperor have never really been the target of such rebels, even as they fought against Imperial forces. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Black_Tortoise_Force \n\nBlack Tortoise troops are armed with modern rifles, and can use them accurately with a reasonably good rate of fire. As with all contemporary rifles, they are large-bore weapons and cause horrendous wounds if they hit a target. These troops should not be thrown into close combat, and, if they are left unsupported, they may well be overwhelmed by a well-timed cavalry attack. However, thanks to the martial traditions of Aizu province, these men have good morale. \n\nDespite 200 and more years of peace under the Shogunate, the province of Aizu did have a large standing army. After the arrival of the Americans in 1853, the lords of Aizu continued to maintain a traditional martial approach for the most part, but were also pragmatic enough to modernise to a degree. \n\nThe unit is named after a Chinese constellation, “Xuanwu” in Chinese and “Genbu” in Japanese, the mythological Black Tortoise of the North, a creature associated, not surprisingly, with the element of water. In Taoist legend, this creature is also called the Black Warrior, and is sometimes depicted as a general rather than a warrior. The legend supposedly has a son of the Emperor going to seek enlightenment before achieving godhood and a place in the northern sky. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Imperial_Infantry \n\nThey carry European arms and equipment, and have been trained by European military advisors, although they are usually commanded by Japanese officers when in action. They are well-versed in modern weaponry, and can deliver accurate, sustained, and damaging fire with their rifles. They are capable of reloading quickly, and have good morale as a result of their training. Imperial infantry are reasonably useful in close combat but, like all infantry, are vulnerable to being overrun by cavalry if left in a poor tactical position. \n\nThe Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket was a typical weapon of its period issued to line infantry. Firing a bullet wider than a man’s thumb, it was made in large numbers for the British Army, allies, and almost any foreign customers who had the money. It was used in great numbers by both sides in the American Civil War and, after artillery, probably caused more casualties than any other weapon in that conflict. It’s most destructive and disruptive moment, however, had nothing to do with a battlefield. The Enfield was issued by the British East India Company to its troops, including Indian Sepoys. A combination of British pig-headedness in not taking native sensibilities into account and native rumour-mongering made the Enfield the immediate cause of the Indian Mutiny of 1857. The cartridges for the rifle were waxed, to keep out the damp, but rumour had it that they were greased with pig and beef fat, violating the religious strictures of Muslim and Hindu alike. The result was trouble, rebellion and massacre. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Infantry \n\nLine infantry are the main force of an army making up, as the name suggests, the bulk of a battle line. Equipped and armed in modern, European style, each man has a good quality rifle which gives the unit a reasonable reload speed and good accuracy of fire in most situations. The large bullets fired do an unpleasant amount of damage to enemies. This means that line infantry are best suited to engaging the enemy with fire, and not in close combat where they are no better than other infantrymen. And like other infantry, they can be ridden down by cavalry if they are mishandled or left in an exposed, unsupported position. \n\nA wide variety of rifles from many parts of the world were available on the open market by the time of the Boshin war. For most practical purposes on the battlefield there was little to choose between the various rifles on offer. Manufacturers in Britain, France, America and elsewhere competed fiercely to sell their weaponry to anyone who was interested. Governments supported the trade as an adjunct to diplomacy, or conveniently looked the other way in the interests of national profit. The period was, after all, a period of liberal “laissez faire” capitalism where politicians did not consider it the proper business of government to interfere in mercantile matters, even when death was the commodity. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Red_Bear_Infantry \n\nArmed and equipped in the latest foreign style, but wearing a form of traditional red-haired “wig”, these men are staunch sons of Tosa. They fight as line infantry, delivering disciplined volleys of rifle fire into the enemy. They carry foreign-made rifles that are accurate, powerful and quick to reload. Despite being motivated and having good morale, the Red Bears are not particularly well trained in close combat. They are also vulnerable to cavalry attacks if they are left in exposed, unsupported positions. \n\nThe red bear wigs, or shaguma (meaning “red bear”), worn by these Tosa infantrymen, were a peculiar affectation of Imperial troops during the Boshin War. While amazing and intimidating helmets were common currency for samurai warriors in earlier periods, there doesn’t seem to be a ready explanation for why an otherwise modern force would adopt such hats, except for the fact that they look wild and scary. The red colour used by Tosa troops is alleged to echo the red hair Dutch traders who were confined to Nagasaki during the Shogunate, but this explanation does not really explain very much or seem all that rational. Dutchmen, like most mainland Europeans, are not especially likely to be red-haired. The wigs, then, seem to have been a nod to traditional warrior attire, and just plain intimidating to enemies! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Shinsengumi \n\nThese “special police” carry katanas, making them rather formidable in close-quarter battles. They are also dedicated to their cause and each other, and have good morale. Like the samurai of old, they are unlikely to break and run after suffering a few casualties. While the shinsengumi embrace Japanese tradition, they are not above using modern weapons. This gives them a good, accurate and rapid ranged attack. If they have weaknesses, they are those of lesser men: artillery is no respecter of courage, and, if they were badly handled by their general, the shinsengumi could be ridden down by cavalry. \n\nThe shinsengumi were the “special police” of the Tokugawa Shogunate in Kyoto. The name can be translated as “Team of the Newly Chosen Ones”. This was a useful bit of propaganda as the men who formed the shinsengumi did not have particularly good reputations in Kyoto; previously they had been referred to as “the wolves of Mibu”, referring to a district in the capital. They were one of a number of armed factions who arose in the confusion and uncertainty of the late 1850s, and were actually quite violent towards their enemies, or the enemies of the Shogunate: they do not always appear to have been all that scrupulous about making a distinction between their vendettas and their duties. However, they were credited with breaking up a plot to burn down Kyoto by Imperialist conspirators. They used rather imaginative torture to establish that there was a conspiracy, and attacked the revealed conspirators with deadly force. Historians are now divided over the reality and dangers of the “plot”, but the shinsengumi made the most of their new opportunity for power. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Shogunate_Infantry \n\nThese infantrymen carry European-pattern arms and equipment, and have been trained by European advisors. They are well-versed in modern tactics, and can deliver accurate, sustained, and damaging fire with their modern rifles. They are capable of reloading quickly, and have a good morale as a result of their training. They are reasonably useful for close combat work but, like all infantry, are vulnerable to being overrun by cavalry if left in a poor tactical position. \n\nBy the middle of the 19th Century, nearly all European armies had adopted the rifle-musket, a muzzle-loading update of the trusted Napoleonic-era smoothbore. Unfortunately, it took a while for tactics to take account of fact that every infantryman was now carrying a rifle, a much more accurate weapon than the smoothbore predecessor. The old “Napoleonic” tactics of marching to within a stone’s throw of the enemy before giving fire proved to be verging on the suicidal, when every bullet could be aimed with some assurance that it would hit the mark. Often, it was only the tendency of inexperienced troops to aim high that prevented worse slaughter being done. This was recognised in the oft-issued instruction to “aim at their bellies” when firing volleys. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_Vermillion_Bird_Force \n\nThe Vermilion Birds carry rifles, which give them good accuracy and a reasonable rate of fire against enemies and, thanks to the large bore used in nearly all rifles, they do a more than satisfactory amount of damage too. These troops are not suited to being thrown into close combat, and if they are carelessly positioned and left unsupported, they may well be overwhelmed by cavalry attacks. However, thanks to the martial traditions of Aizu province, these men have good morale. The unit is named after a Chinese constellation, the mythological Vermilion Bird of the South, a creature associated with the element of fire. \n\nEven after he was declared an “enemy of the Court” by Satsuma and Choshu Imperial officials, Matsudaira Katamori, the lord of Aizu, asked for mercy and did much in his power to avoid conflict. The Imperialist generals and Court officials were having none of it, and effectively forced him into the ranks of their enemies. Although never formally part of the Northern Alliance, the “Ouetsu Reppan Domei”, Matsudaira Katamori did allow his army to integrate into their forces. Despite this, the Alliance was soon a beaten force. Katamori was spared, and finished his days as a priest at Nikko Toshogu shrine, dedicated to Tokugawa Ieyasu, the man who founded the defeated Tokugawa Shogunate. There has to be a small suspicion that, despite this being an honourable position, a point was being made by Katamori’s enemies: the past was gone. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_White_Bear_Infantry \n\nArmed and equipped in the latest foreign style, but wearing a form of traditional white-haired “wig”, the White Bears are the staunch defenders of Choshu. As line infantry, they have been trained to deliver disciplined volleys of rifle fire into enemy formations. The foreign-made rifles they carry do terrible damage, and the White Bears are both accurate and rapid firing with them. They are well motiviated and have good morale, but they not really experts in close-quarter fighting. Similarly, like other infantry, they will be ridden down by cavalry if left in an exposed position. \n\nOne of the most famous weapon designers in Japan was a son of the Choshu domain. Born a samurai and adopted by a gunmaker, Arisaka Nariakira eventually became a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army. He was also ennobled as a baron by the Emperor Meiji for his work in developing infantry weapons. While his first efforts were not well regarded by the troops who had to use them, he learned from his mistakes, and his guns were in use by Japanese troops during the Boxer Rebellion (1900), the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) and throughout the Second World War (1939-45). He also designed artillery pieces for the Imperial Japanese Army. His grasp of advanced engineering and ballistics is even more remarkable when you remember that he was born into what was essentially a non-technical, medieval society. In the space of his lifetime, Japan went from being a closed, traditional society to a modern power, virtually the equal of any contemporary, colonialist European nation. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Line_White_Tiger_Force \n\nThe White Tigers carry rifles, and can use them well, giving good accuracy and a reasonable rate of fire. The rifles themselves are large bore weapons, and cause serious wounds when their bullets hit home. This is useful, as fire rather than close combat is the strength of the force. If the White Tigers are carelessly handled, they are vulnerable to being ridden down by a well-timed cavalry attack. However, thanks to the martial traditions of Aizu province, these men have good morale. \n\nThe feudal lord of Aizu, Matsudaira Katamori, was a Tokugawa loyalist and was appointed to be the Protector of Kyoto by the Shogun. He was declared an “enemy of the Court” by the Imperial forces, and much of his army ended up fighting for the Northern Alliance against the Emperor. \n\nThe White Tigers were part of the Aizu army at Tonoguchihara, although they were originally intended to be a reserve unit of samurai. Unfortunately, after they withdrew, they assumed that the castle town was on fire and lost, and some members of the White Tigers took their own lives. Oddly, their grave is now marked by a column from Pompeii, a gift from Benito Mussolini, the Italian fascist dictator. The unit is named after a Chinese constellation, the mythological White Tiger of the West, a creature associated with the element of metal. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Militia_Levy_Infantry \n\nLevy infantry are raised as militia: second-line forces that are trained to a reasonable standard but are not full time or professional soldiers by any means. They are a strategic defensive force, acting as garrisons and guards in their home provinces. On the battlefield, they can give a good account of themselves, and can use their smoothbore guns efficiently. However, these weapons are slow to load and, because they are not rifled, they are not particularly accurate or long-ranged. They are, however, simple, rugged, dependable and cheap. Levies have surprisingly decent morale, but they are not well-suited to close combat, and they will take casualties if cavalry are allowed to overrun them. \n\nThese militia troops were the natural successors to the ashigaru of earlier Japanese history. The ashigaru were men of the peasant class, rather than samurai warriors, who made a living as soldiers. Although equipped, armed and drilled in European style, often by European mercenary officers and sergeants, the levies retained the distinctive jingasa helmets of the ashigaru. This conical helmet was actually a more practical bit of kit than a European hat. There was a chance, for a start, that it might keep out a shell splinter; it was waterproof; and it could, at a pinch, be turned upside down and used as a cooking pot. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Missile_Bow_Kachi \n\nThe noble art of the bow should not be forgotten in more modern times of steam engines and machine guns. These men still have much to offer as they are skilled warriors. With good range and an accuracy born of years of dedication to their art they are a fine addition to any army. However, they should never be committed to close combat and they are incredibly vulnerable to cavalry charges. Should they attempt a fight against more modern weapons they will probably find themselves overpowered and take heavy losses. \n\nThe bow has always been a valued and important part of Japanese society and warfare. In some myths the bow could mean the difference between life and death, even for the innocent. During the Nara period the nine-headed dragon Kuzuryu took up residence in Lake Ashi in Hakone. The creature demanded sacrifice and the villagers had to devise a fair way to select the family whose daughter’s life would satiate Kuzuryu. It was decided that a white feathered arrow should be shot into the air over the village and the house that it landed on would have to give up their youngest daughter for sacrifice. This process continued until Kuzuryu was vanquished by a priest named Mankan who chained him to a rock formation within Lake Ashi. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Kachi \n\nWar is changing and those who stubbornly cling only to the old ways will surely perish. All armies require the firepower these musket-armed troops offer. Their accuracy makes them ideal for breaking enemy charges and providing support for the main line of troops. They should never be sent into melee combat, and their slow reload times leave them vulnerable to cavalry attacks. In ranged combat they will be outmatched by units with more modern firearms. \n\nMuskets were originally introduced into Japan by Portuguese traders in the 1500s. These weapons were bought, copied, improved and then remained the standard Japanese firearm for years after. Despite the availability of better weapons from overseas, it was still not unusual to find armies using designs that were hundreds of years old and “native” rather than “foreign”. The matchlock had the advantage of being simple, quite rugged in operational conditions, and its use was well understood by men, officers and generals. To be fair to the Japanese, who might appear a little hidebound by their use of the matchlock, during the 19th Century many European armies had been strangely reluctant to abandon the familiar flintlock in favour of the new-fangled percussion cap. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Spear_Kyoto_Police \n\nThese men should be seen as a militia, or city watch. While they carry spears on the battlefield, these weapons are not the regular equipment the police would carry through the streets. However, they are dedicated, and excellent on the defensive in close combat, and with an impressive charge. They can, under the proper circumstances, break an enemy line. As might be expected, they are also very useful against attacking cavalry. Because they consider themselves to be defending their homes police have good morale. \n\nModern policing was still developing in the later 19th Century. Police were largely seen as a means of social repression by the ruling classes: they were expected to catch thieves and put down insurrections, but they were not expected to carry out detective work. They were particularly not expected to carry out detective work into the doings of the great and good, especially the wrongdoings of the great and good. While the Kyoto police carrying swords on duty might seem odd to modern eyes, policemen in London could also be issued with swords and pistols on the discretion of their superiors. This was the case even though “the Met” were deliberately not a military or paramilitary force, unlike other European police organisations. In Kyoto the police also had a duty of fire-watching, a constant peril in a city built of wood. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Spear_Spear_Levy \n\nEven in modern combat the spear is a remarkably useful weapon. It can be used in single or mass combat, and is equally effective for attack and defence. Spear levies are armed with long spears that are almost pikes and can be used to lead a battle charge. They are well-drilled, but lack the lifetime of skill and dedication that marks out the samurai. Spear levies are most effective when they work together as a block, forming a wall of spears. This compensates for their low morale and limits the amount of damage they take due to a lack of armour. Any cavalry that charges into a well-managed formation of spear levy will be severely depleted as the horses and riders are skewered. \n\nGods and goddesses have been adopted and adapted throughout history. Some aspects of Japanese mythology have their roots in Buddhism, but the deities worshipped in Japan often bear little resemblance to the Buddhist deities they were based on. For example, Vaisravana, the chief of the Four Heavenly Kings, became the armour-clad Bishamonten when Buddhism spread through Japan. Although he retained the position of Guardian of the North, he took on the more brutal mantle of God of War: gone was the umbrella or chatra, traditionally associated with Vaisravana, replaced instead with a deadly spear. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Spear_Yari_Kachi \n\nYari kachi are extremely adaptable troops in battle. Spears can be used at the charge and while in defence. The length of spears makes them especially effective against mounted troops, forming an almost impenetrable wall that can pierce the breasts of horses or skewer riders. In melee their defence can hold for some time, although they are vulnerable to attack from katana units. However, they have no defence against missile attacks, lacking the mobility to move quickly out of range. \n\nAlthough the sword is the weapon most often associated with the samurai in popular imagination, the spear was just as integral to the samurai way. Three weapons, forged by the greatest blacksmiths in Japanese history, passed into legend and became known as the Three Great Spears of Japan. The first was Otegine; the second, Nihongo, passed through the hands of several famous warriors; the third, Tonbogiri, is perhaps the best known. Owned by the warrior Honda Tadakatsu, Tonbogiri was known as the “dragonfly cutting spear”. Legend has it that the spear was so sharp a dragonfly that landed upon its blade was instantly sliced in two. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Special_Kisho_Ninjas \n\nThese men are shadows, able to move across the battlefield without being seen. They are best employed to stealthily approach high-value enemy units, and then suddenly strike. They can throw fire bombs at close range, and fight in melee with deadly skill. However, the small number of men in a kisho ninja unit means that they can be overwhelmed by numbers in close combat if badly handled. They should not be hurled into an attack just because they are at hand! \n\nDespite more than two centuries of relative peace and calm under the Tokugawa Shogunate, there are few reasons to think that the ninja ceased to exist. Indeed, there is every reason to suppose that ninja remained in use throughout the period to keep order. The arrival of new weapons and technology in Japan in the 1850s and later would merely have given the ninja new killing devices to use. During the wars of the 20th Century, Imperial Japanese Special Forces employed many skills that would have been instantly recognisable to medieval ninja. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Sword_Katana_Kachi \n\nKatana kachi form part of the main line in battle, charging forward to engage the enemy in close combat. Katanas are very effective weapons: the sharp blade easily cuts through enemies, while the flat deflects blows. The kachi go into battle accepting death and fearing little, which gives them excellent morale, but accepting death and foolishly risking your life are not the same thing. Katana kachi must be wary of threats from cavalry and modern missile troops, against both of which they have little defence. \n\nThe use of powerful or otherworldly swords is dotted throughout the mythology of Japan. These great weapons are often won in times of trial or through the completion of noble deeds. For example, when Susanoo, god of storms, was cast down from Heaven he was forced to walk the earth. Upon reaching the Hi River he encountered an old man and woman who were weeping. They explained to the god that they had been forced to sacrifice all but one of their young daughters to Orochi, a fearsome 8-headed dragon. The couple begged Susanoo to help them protect their last daughter and he agreed, telling them to lay a trap laced with alcohol. When Orochi drank from the trap all his heads fell asleep. Susanoo took up his sword and slashed the dragon into pieces breaking his sword in the process. When he looked into one of the holes he made in the dragons flesh he saw the glint of a great sword: this was the legendary blade Kusanai-no-Tsurugi which became part of the Imperial regalia of Japan. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Inf_Sword_Shogitai \n\nThe shogitai are the epitome of traditionalist Japan, charging into combat with drawn swords. They are shock troops, and will break an enemy line. If they can close with the enemy, they will do fearful slaughter, as they are deadly when attacking in melee and have very good morale; they think less of defence, and so need some careful handling. They are vulnerable to rifle fire, as they have no counter to it, other than to close with their tormentors: this is a deadly risk. If left foolishly exposed or isolated they will also be ridden down by cavalrymen. \n\nDespite 250 years of Tokugawa rule and a mostly enforced peace, the old skills of the samurai had not been entirely discarded in the rapidly modernising Japan of the Meiji era. Bushido had become a formalised study rather than a practical set of warrior skills, but that did not make individual swordsmen any less deadly. The samurai, alone of all the social classes, had been permitted to keep their weaponry, and they had kept alive the skills needed to use traditional arms. These traditions would be kept alive in the very modern Imperial Japanese Army, something that would probably have surprised the shogitai! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Ship_HMS_Warrior \n\nThe Warrior class ironclads are impressive, steam-propelled, ocean-going vessels, boasting strong iron hulls. Huge in scale, the ships are packed to the gunnels with rifle-armed crewmen who protect them from enemy attacks, should an enemy manage to get close enough to attempt a boarding. However, with the excellent firepower possessed by the Warrior class, few ships could get close enough to pose such an immediate threat. With all of this taken into account the crews of these ships have excellent morale. \n\nThe Warrior class of warships was named after HMS Warrior, an earlier wooden British third-rate ship-of-the-line. Construction of the Warrior class began following construction of France’s first ironclad warship, La Gloire. Sir John Somerset Packington, the First Lord of the Admiralty, was determined to see off any threat to the supremacy of the Royal Navy, and HMS Warrior was to be the largest warship the world had ever seen. When she was commissioned in 1861 she met these demands and more, she was over 60% larger than La Goire. She had also been conceived, designed and built before the French ship was launched. However, such was the speed of change in naval architecture at this time that HMS Warrior was superseded by faster, bigger and better-armoured vessels in less than a decade. She was eventually withdrawn from service in 1883. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Ship_Kaiten \n\nThis paddle steamer is fast, and as such is ideal for supporting larger ships that lack her manoeuvrability. However, she lacks the armour of larger ships and is vulnerable to artillery fire. Her armament is not as large as some ships of her class, but the guns have good range and accuracy. Her decks are also manned by rifle-armed crewmen. \n\nFishing has always been an important aspect of Japanese society and as such appears regularly in mythology. Many tales are intended to impart the importance of respecting the sea and all its creatures. One such tale is the story of Urashima Taro, a fisherman who rescued a turtle from a group of children and returned it to the sea. The turtle turned out to be the daughter of Ryujin, the god of the ocean, who invited the fisherman to his palace beneath the waves. The man soon yearned to return home and the princess gave him a box, warning him never to open it. He returned home to discover hundreds of years had passed and all those he once knew were dead. In his grief he opened the box. The voice of the princess whispered from the sea, “I warned you.” Urashima Taro instantly aged and, in some versions of the story, turned to dust and floated away on the wind. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Ship_Kaiyo_Maru \n\nThe Kaiyo Maru is an impressive vessel: her sheer size sets her apart from other ships. Her coal-fired engine is the main source of propulsion. She is slow moving but incredibly strong, a strength which is backed up with excellent firepower. Her range and accuracy are both good, and the rifle-armed crew members have exceptional morale. Her size means she is most effective in open sea battles rather than close quarter coastal and port battles. \n\nThe Kaiyo Maru was constructed in the Netherlands at the shipyards of Cornelis Gips and Sons. At the time of launch she was the largest wooden warship ever built in a Dutch shipyard and cost the Shogun and his government 831,200 guilders. She arrived in Japan in 1867 just before the Boshin War. \n\nIn the autumn of 1868, the original Kaiyo Maru was one of seven ships that carried troops loyal to the Shogun, along with the French military advisor Jules Brunet, to the island of Hokkaido. It was here that they established the Republic of Ezo, the leaders petitioned the Imperial Court to allow them to continue the ways of the samurai on the island. Their request was turned down. This move was swiftly followed by a fleet carrying 7,000 men and, after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Hakodate, the short lived Ezo Republic was no more. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Ship_Kanko_Maru \n\nPropelled by large paddle wheels, this steamship is slow moving but with decent armament. She has adequate range and accuracy, making her a good all-rounder. Her size means she can be used for large naval engagements and port battles alike, but the vessel will excel in smaller port and coastal battles where her rifle-armed crew can pick off enemies. \n\nFor many years the Japanese exercised a strict policy of national seclusion. Only the Dutch were allowed to set foot on Japanese soil and even then they were strictly regulated. Following the end of the national seclusion policy the Shogunate began talks with the Dutch to provide them with modern warships. A Dutch ship by the name of “Soembing” was sent from the Royal Netherlands naval station in the Netherlands East Indies and was formally presented to Tokugawa Iseda in 1855. This ship was renamed Kanko Maru, or “Light of the Country”. She spent most of her Japanese naval life as a training ship and ended her time at the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy in Tokyo. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Ship_Kanrin_Maru \n\nScrew-driven, the Kanrin Maru is a good all-round warship. Of medium size, with good armament and a capable, confident, rifle-armed crew, she can be used to great effect in both open sea battles and the smaller scale coastal and port battles. Her guns have good range and accuracy, and are capable of causing substantial damage to enemy vessels. \n\nThe movement of the tides can make or break naval battles and in Japan they believe the tides are controlled by Ryujin. He can appear in human form but is often shown as a dragon. He lived in Ryugu-jo, a palace built of red and white coral far below the waves, where his will was served by sea turtles and jellyfish. His control over the tide came from the mythical tide jewels “kanju” and “manju”. It is said that he came to the aid of Empress Jingu during her war against Korea. When the Korean navy attacked the kanju, or tide-ebbing jewel, was thrown into the waters and they receded. When the Korean sailors left their ships and attempted to return to shore manju, the tide-flowing jewel, was cast down and the sea instantly rose, drowning all the Korean sailors. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Ship_Kasuga \n\nPowered by a coal-fired steam engine and propelled by large paddle wheels, the Kasuga is a fine addition to any fleet. Her size means she can withstand attacks from larger ships better than her smaller counterparts, but she is still fast moving and manoeuvrable. Her crew are armed with rifles and her guns have good range and accuracy. As an all-rounder she is suitable for large naval engagements in open waters as well as smaller coastal and port battles. \n\nTales of monsters that plague sailors are found in mythology the world over. In Japan the most fearsome of these mythical beasts was Yofune-Nushi, a huge sea serpent. This malicious creature could cause storms to rise and, yearly, demanded a sacrifice of human flesh from a fishing village. If the villagers failed to provide this sacrifice the creature would call a devastating storm, sinking the entire fishing fleet. This yearly sacrifice continued until a young lady, Tokoyo, volunteered to be the sacrifice. As the creature approached her she withdrew a concealed knife and slashed the creature’s eyes out. As it thrashed around in pain she was able to slit its throat, saving her village from the creature forever. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Ship_Kotetsu \n\nThe Kotetsu is an amazing feat of engineering. This screw-driven ironclad battleship may not be as big as some of her contemporaries, but she more than makes up for it in power and guns. She carries one of the most powerful guns available in contemporary naval combat and, as a result, boasts excellent range and accuracy. Her crew are armed with rifles and the morale on board ship is extremely high. \n\nAlthough Kotetsu, literally meaning “Ironclad”, became the first warship of the type in the Japanese fleet she answered to many names before she even reached Japan. Constructed in France for the Confederate States Navy in 1864, she was originally named the “CSS Sphinx”. However, when it was discovered that the French were building ships for the Confederates the shipyard was forced to sell the Sphinx to Denmark, where she was renamed Staerkodder. The following year she finally sailed under the Confederate flag and was re-commissioned the “CSS Stonewall”. She went on to play a key role in the American Civil War and, after spending a small amount of time in a US Navy dock, was eventually sold to the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, and given the name Kotetsu. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Ship_LOcean \n\nOcean class ironclads are an improved version of the French “Provence” class. They are screw-driven battleships fitted with metal-reinforced rams below the waterline that make them particularly deadly to smaller wooden vessels. They have excellent range and accuracy and the crew has exceptionally high morale. The crew are armed with rifles, ready to repel any boarding attacks from those ships fortunate enough to get close enough to attack. The sheer size of these warships makes them ideal for large naval engagements at sea, but they are less suited to small scale port battles as they are less manoeuvrable than some of their smaller counterparts. \n\nThe Ocean class ironclads were designed by French naval architect Henri Dupuy de Lome. He was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique and spent some time studying in England. His radical ideas about ship design were not immediately welcomed on his return to France, but after the construction of “Le Napoleon”, the first ever screw-driven battleship, there were few who questioned his methods. \n\nHis inventiveness was not confined to the conventional. In 1870 Dupuy de Lome put his considerable experience to use designing the first ever navigable balloon. The French government provided him with anything he required, including large amounts of money, to complete the project. The ‘Dupuy de Lome’ became the first operational airship and was used to great effect during the Franco-Prussian War. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Ship_USS_Roanoke \n\nThese heavily armoured ships are screw driven, but it is their armament that sets them apart from other ironclads: they carry guns in Ericsson turrets which boast outstanding range and accuracy. The crew are armed with rifles and have excellent morale. The sheer size of these warships makes them ideal for large naval engagements at sea, but they are less suited to small scale port battles as they are less manoeuvrable than some of their smaller counterparts. \n\nThe original USS Roanoke wasn’t originally designed as an ironclad; when she was launched in December of 1855 she was a wooden-hulled steam frigate. When the American Civil War began she was re-commissioned and attached to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. It wasn’t until June of 1863 that she was re-commissioned as an ironclad after a series of improvements undertaken at the Novelty Iron Works. She was given three revolving Ericsson turrets, but sea trials soon revealed that the heavy turrets caused the ship to roll dangerously when out at sea, and the newly reinforced hull still didn’t have the strength to bear the weight of continuous firing. As a result she was assigned to harbour defence at Hampton Roads, Virginia. She remained in service until 1882 when she was eventually struck from the list and a year later sold for scrap. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Boshin_Torpedo_Boat_Chiyodagata \n\nThis ship is similar to many others of its class with one important difference: it is equipped with torpedo launching tubes. This deadly new technology means that self-propelled torpedoes can be fired from this ship, causing devastating damage to enemy vessels. The ship still retains its speed and manoeuvrability and, as such, is able to attack larger, slower ships and then beat a speedy retreat. However, should it come under fire it will take heavy damage. \n\nThe first self-propelled torpedo was designed by the English engineer Robert Whitehead; torpedoes had originally been explosives on the end of spars, sticking out from a vessel. He worked at Fiume in Austria, and it was here that he met fellow engineer Giovanni Luppis. Luppis had been working on plans for a self-propelled torpedo and approached Whitehead to help him finalise the designs. After a few initial tests Whitehead abandoned Luppis’ plans for a shore launch control system and started working on a new system that could launch torpedoes from ships. He presented his design, the “Minenschiff”, to the Austrian Imperial Naval commission in 1866. The Austrian government chose to invest in Whitehead's invention, and he started the first torpedo factory in Fiume. It was only a matter of time before other nations heard about this amazing new technology, and in 1871 the British Admiralty paid Whitehead £15,000 for his designs. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cannon_Ship_Cannon_Bune \n\nCannon bunes carry few crewmen and are no match for heavy ships in terms of manpower or size. Instead they are designed to act as “skirmishers” where their size is an advantage: their guns can do immense damage to an enemy vessel’s hull or crew. The bune’s oarsmen can put on a burst of speed for a short time, if needed. The sides and roof of the cannon bune are covered in thick bamboo, with small holes for the cannon to poke through, making it impossible for enemy soldiers to board it. \n\nMedieval Japanese naval warships could be classified into three weights: heavy, medium and light. Light ships were primarily used for scouting and communication missions, and were considered too small for battle.\n\nThe Tokugawa clan did create a hybrid ship for their siege of the Osaka coastal fortress in 1615. It was small and light but also functioned as an assault ship. Based on the kobaya ships, this new type, the mekura bune, or ‘blind ship’, had fewer oarsmen to make room for additional cannons and archers. The bamboo protection covering it resembled a shell, drawing comparisons with the Korean’s famous ‘turtle ship’. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Missile_Bow_Cavalry \n\nWith both hands occupied by aiming and firing a bow, these men must use their knees to control and steer their mounts. Japan has a long tradition of mounted archery and these troops remain invaluable despite the introduction of gunpowder. Matchlocks may be powerful, but they are also unreliable and inaccurate, and the ashigaru who use them simply lack the skills and mobility of mounted samurai. These cavalry archers can quickly move to the flanks of an enemy, or harass the enemy at a distance. If caught in melee, they have enough training to defend themselves, but they should avoid fighting spearmen or heavy cavalry.\n\nThe introduction of arquebuses in the Sengoku Jidai threatened Japan’s ancient tradition of mounted archery. Guns meant that a daimyo could bolster his army with large numbers of arquebus-armed ashigaru rather than relying on the skilful, but less numerous, samurai.\n\nFortunately for the samurai, horse archery was too important a tradition to die out, and the art survived. For training, they would shoot at corralled dogs, or at wooden targets while speeding along a set course. The latter training method, called ‘yabusame’ is still practiced today at special demonstrations for visiting dignitaries, and participation is considered a great honour. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Missile_Donderbuss_Cavalry \n\nThe donderbuss actually makes them an effective counter to many other cavalry at close range and, as might be expected, their firepower against other units is formidable. Like mounted gunners, donderbuss cavalry can move quickly across the battlefield and use skirmish tactics to stay out of trouble. Being samurai, they can defend themselves in close combat, but should not be sent into melee without good reason. Like many horsemen, they are vulnerable to fire from massed infantry archers.\n\nHistorically, the term “donderbuss” was an early term used to describe what is now generally called a “blunderbuss.” Literally meaning “thunder pipe”, the name exactly describes the incredibly loud noise when it was fired. A forerunner of the shotgun, the donderbuss was intended to fire lead or brass balls or, when these ran out bits of metal, nails, stones or even coins. The bell-like muzzle was flared in order to increase the spread of shot, and also to make it easier to pour gunpowder down the barrel when on horseback or riding on a cart. The donderbuss barrel was much shorter than other weapons of the time to make it handier and easier to load. Eventually, in the West it was replaced in mounted use by the “dragon”; in Europe these were used by “dragoons”, a military term still in use today. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Missile_Matchlock_Mounted_Gunner \n\nThe matchlocks actually make them an effective counter to many other cavalry and, as might be expected, their firepower against all other units is quite formidable. Unlike other musketeers, they can move quickly across the battlefield, and actually use skirmishing tactics to stay out of trouble. They are good shots, but their reloading speeds are on the slow side. Being samurai, they can defend themselves in close combat, but should not be committed to a melee without a good reason. They are, like many horsemen, vulnerable to fire from massed infantry archers. \n\nEvery army that used muzzle-loading guns from horseback discovered that they were difficult to use well. As might be expected, horses can be a trifle skittish when loud bangs keep happening just behind their heads. Then there is the entirely separate problem of reloading: getting powder, ball and wadding down a barrel while a horse prances about is not easy at the best of times. Ramming home a bullet in a metre-long gun with a metre long stick is painful, and dropping anything just doesn’t bear thinking about! Europeans, who stuck with firearms after the samurai abandoned them, eventually developed the short carbine, or equipped their cavalry with anything up to a dozen pistols to avoid reloading in action. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Spear_Fire_Cavalry \n\nFire cavalry are best used as a shock formation, charging home into a melee to smash aside nearly all enemies. They are, of course, particularly effective if they can charge into the flanks or rear of an enemy unit. In melee they can be used against infantry and cavalry alike, although as with all horsemen they need to be carefully handled when in battle against naginata- or spear-armed troops. As with all melee units, they can be vulnerable to concentrated missile fire; historically this was amply demonstrated at the Battle of Nagashino when Oda musketeers shattered the Takeda cavalry attack. \n\nUntil Nagashino, the Takeda clan were famed as horsemen and their cavalry were rightly feared by rival clans. In battle, an opening charge into the enemy became a standard Takeda tactic, and one which served them well. Enemies knew what was coming, and were often demoralised by the prospect. \n\nThey were also often demoralised by the thought of facing Takeda Shingen, one of the few men who was the equal of Oda Nobunaga as a commander. Shingen was ably served by his cavalrymen, and by his “Twenty Four Generals”, a group of close retainers. Some of them were rather closer than you might expect: Shingen’s favourite, Kosaka Masanobu, was bound to the warlord by a love-pact sworn before the gods, that Shingen would not take another as lover. Such “shudo” arrangements between samurai were not uncommon, as it was expected that the parties would be loyal unto death to each other, a useful vow on the battlefield. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Spear_Great_Guard \n\nThese elite warriors ride heavy horses, and their power in full charge is focused to deliver a devastating spear attack, crashing through many enemies with ease. Great guard samurai have high morale and great prestige, making them inspiring to nearby friendly units. The guard are vulnerable to missile attacks. Spearmen, the other great danger to cavalry, can be flanked by a careful guard commander and then smashed by the guards’ heavy charge.\n\nHistorically, the Tokugawa created several guard units during and immediately after their rise to the Shogunate. The “oban” or great guard were the personal bodyguards of Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1590. By 1600, these guards had multiplied with many “kumi” or companies in existence. Additional guard units were also raised: the “Ryoban” or "Two Guards of the Body Guard" and the "Inner Guard". There was another force called the "Honourable Body Guard" who only guarded the Shogun at night in Edo. A generation after the Sengoku Jidai, the “Goshinban” or "Honourable New Guard" were added to the roster, although this may have been to keep troublesome younger members of samurai families out of trouble and under the Shogun’s eye! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Spear_Light_Cavalry \n\nLight cavalry are swift, and can deliver a devastating charge thanks to their spears. However, they should then break off, reform and attack again rather than remaining in melee. Like all samurai, they are well motivated by their sense of honour and have high morale in battle. Their speed over a battleground comes in useful when chasing down fleeing troops, or when they are needed to deliver a final blow to wavering enemies. They are, however, the weakest cavalry when fighting infantry, and are vulnerable if mishandled when facing spear infantry or if left within range of missile troops.\n\nHistorically, mounted combat was the traditional identifier of the samurai as a warrior and social class, just like the knights of medieval Europe. Being a mounted warrior required wealth and position to sustain the expense of horses, armour and servants. Perhaps this goes some way to explaining why many samurai came to fight on foot, as it was cheaper to take part in battle! Some traditions, however, such as seeking out an equally skilled and honourable foe refused to die, even though they ran counter to the idea of army and unit discipline. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Spear_Naginata_Warrior_Monks \n\nEach of these warrior monks is armed with a naginata, a polearm that is very effective against cavalry. Thanks to being mounted themselves, these monks are a formidable force in close combat, especially against other cavalry. They can be used to counter enemy cavalrymen, relieving other, slower units in the process. Naginata warrior monk cavalry are not quite as effective against infantry units, but are still a terrifying sight. Their faith sustains them in battle, giving them high morale and a fearsome reputation. \n\nThe naginata was a polearm that looked like a sword-bladed short spear. It was used much like a sword, but with a far longer reach. It could be used to slash or block, both on foot and mounted. In the hands of a master, and most monks were masters in this traditional weapon, it was deadly indeed, and a blow was quite capable of cutting a man in two. The Ikko-Ikki also adopted this weapon for its fearsome appearance, and it was also considered a suitable weapon for a lady. Many samurai women used it for home defence when their menfolk were away at war. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Spear_Yari_Cavalry \n\nYari cavalry focus all the power of their fearsome charge into the points of the long spears they carry as they smash into enemy cavalry and infantry alike. Their high morale spurs them into battle and keeps them from routing, even when engaged in melee, where their spears are at a disadvantage. Yari cavalry are best used to attack the rear or flanks of infantry to avoid spear counter-attacks and getting caught in messy, close-quarters fighting. Their amazing speed over the ground makes this entirely possible, as they can rarely be caught even by other cavalry units.\n\nDuring the Sengoku Jidai, the spear and sword superseded the bow as the weapons of choice for samurai cavalry. Despite a long tradition of mounted archery, a bow could not be used in melee, leaving cavalry archers vulnerable to counter-attacks by foot soldiers. Spears, on the other hand, could be used to break enemy defences in a full charge, or used in quick, slashing strokes whilst in close combat. Swords could be used to cut an enemy down, but obviously lacked the range of a bow, or spear. However, if a samurai was wealthy enough, he would have an attendant to carry and hand him his bow, spear or sword, depending on the situation and personal preference. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Sword_Katana_Cavalry \n\nCavalry warfare is traditionally the preserve of the samurai. Only they have the skill to wield a sword while steering a horse into battle. Katana cavalry are extremely well trained and the weight of their steeds adds to the power of their charge. After a charge, they remain mounted and can engage the enemy with their katana keeping a height advantage over foot soldiers. However, they are vulnerable when facing spears, whether as a wall of spears or a lone, brave enemy thrusting at the belly of a horse.\n\nThe Sengoku Jidai saw Japanese warfare shift from the ritualistic, single combat fought by honour-hungry samurai to the kind of indiscriminate, larger battles that were taking place in medieval Europe. Less skilled troops such as the ashigaru were introduced and then armed with matchlocks, but mounted warfare was still for samurai alone. Bows, spears and katana were all used from horseback and, if a samurai was wealthy enough, he would have an assistant to carry and hand him his weapons as needed. The katana, although traditionally used with two-hands, could still be effective when used in a one-handed grip by a horseman. Swung downwards onto an enemy foot soldier, the sharp, curved blade could easily cut through a man. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Galleon_Black_Ship \n\nThis Portuguese trade ship carries goods to China once a year before returning to Europe. As a consequence, it passes the Japanese coast twice, and is a tempting target for the notorious wako pirates. Fortunately, it is heavily armed, strongly built and a good sailer. The Black Ship carries European cannons, powerful enough to destroy any Japanese ship that might threaten it! Obviously, it would be a magnificent prize!\n\nThe first trade between Japan and Portugal occurred in 1543, when Tanagashima Tokitaka purchased “firelocks” from Portuguese merchants. These were the first “modern” firearms seen in Japan, and the weapons became much sought after. With one sale, the Portuguese created a market for regular trade between the two countries. The introduction of guns changed Japanese warfare, as the emphasis switched from samurai fighting single combat duels on the battlefield to mass volleys by ashigaru units. The second major outside import appeared swiftly, as with later batches of guns came Christian missionaries. Daimyo and lesser men converted, although without necessarily abandoning the samurai ethos of warfare. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Galleon_Nanban_Trade_Ship \n\nEuropean or ‘nanban’ traders are the main source for cannons and matchlock firearms, along with other valuable goods, such as silk from China. Their cargo also makes them a prime target for the notorious wako pirates who haunt the Japanese coastline. For protection, trade ships are fitted with powerful European cannons, giving them some of the capabilities of a warship. If a daimyo can afford it, and is willing to trust barbarous, uncouth Europeans, he can hire these ships for his fleet, but at a very high cost. A typical “nanban” ship was the caravel, a European design with two masts and lateen-rigged sails.\n\nNanban means “southern barbarian”, the term used for the European merchants who traded with Japan from the 1540s onwards. Japan had little contact with outsiders, and Europeans were considered coarse and crude when measured against traditional Japanese etiquette. The nanban trade brought European weapons and goods from China, but suspicion of European motives and the influx of Christian missionaries eventually resulted in the policy of “sakoku”. In 1633 Japan became a ”locked country” and foreigners were banned from entry. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Gen_Taisho \n\nA general oversees a battle and provides an inspiring example to men whose courage is beginning to falter. His loyal bodyguards consider death in the line of duty to be the greatest thing a warrior can hope to achieve. They are hand-picked samurai of great courage and exceptional skill in combat. This unit can carry out vital manoeuvres such as flanking attacks or chasing routers, but that may leave the general vulnerable, so any aggressive action should be undertaken with great caution.\n\nHistorically, daimyo surrounded themselves with a large retinue of bodyguards, weapon carriers and various other attendants. The second great unifier of Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598) had seven men who acted as bodyguards, named ‘yello-horo-shu’ after the gold horo they wore, a mark of their great importance. A daimyo may also have had a ‘zori tori’, who acted as a close personal assistant. Even the task of carrying a warlord’s sandals was seen as a great honour, as the attendant was hand-picked by the daimyo himself, proving that he could be trusted and was therefore worthy of respect. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Cav_Naginata_Cav \n\nNaginata cavalry are extremely good in close combat against other horsemen, where the long reach of their weapons gives them a significant advantage. This also makes them quite handy against most infantry, as they can cut down to size - literally, in some cases - almost any opponents. Naginata-armed infantry counter their weapons’ strengths quite effectively, as might be expected. Given the small numerical strength of the unit, they are best kept out of range of massed archers: naginatas are no defence against a storm of arrows. \n\nWhile the naginata was a fearsome weapon, Japanese weaponsmiths also produced a hybrid weapon halfway between a sword and a naginata, called the nagamaki. It came to be favoured by some in the period immediately after the Gempei War. This resembled nothing so much as a gently curved sword with a handle as long as the blade. Like the naginata it was used with wide sweeping motions, but could also be used as a spear to stab enemies. Despite being effective, it required a lot of effort to make: some claim more work was involved than for a sword or a naginata, and this inherent expense helped to limit its popularity. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Cav_Onna_Bushi_Heroine \n\nArmed with both deadly naginatas and bows, this small unit of elite ladies have skills to rival, or exceed, those of any man. Mounted on fine horses, they can move quickly to key areas on the battlefield, and can terrify enemy infantry with their impressive charges. As well as being fearsome in melee, this unit of heroines can also act as missile cavalry. A wise commander is careful to keep them out of range of massed archers and away from naginata-armed infantry. \n\nThe early Emperors of Japan, and their exploits, are clouded in myth and legend. It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction. This is particularly true of the Empress Jingu, who ruled Japan from in the 3rd Century AD. Following her husband’s death, she carried out his planned invasion of Korea, because a kami had told her that she would be protected whilst on the expedition. This was particularly fortuitous as she was pregnant at the time. After realising that the birth was imminent she prayed that her child would not be born until her return to Japan. After a successful campaign she returned home and gave birth to a son who would eventually be seen as Hachiman, the great kami of war. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Cav_Samurai_Cavalry \n\nWith both hands busy aiming and firing their bows, samurai cavalry must use their knees to control and steer their mounts. This requires intense training for both man and beast. These archers can move quickly to the enemy’s flanks, or harass them from a distance. If caught in melee, the samurai have enough training to defend themselves, but they should probably avoid fighting naginata-armed infantry units. Their relatively few numbers makes them vulnerable to a massed attack by archers: weight of numbers will overpower even skilled warriors. \n\nSamurai were expected to be proficient in the use of a number of weapons but, during this period, archery was widely regarded as the best way to demonstrate a warrior’s true skills. Battles were occasionally settled by mounted archery duels, performed by each army’s most skilled archer. Opponents would ride towards one another and fire a single arrow. This “jousting with bows” could be repeated several times as fatal wounds were seldom inflicted during the early passes. The participants were trying their best to kill each other, but their armour was extremely good at keeping out arrows! Instantly fatal wounds were rather difficult to inflict. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Cav_Samurai_Hero \n\nThese mounted warriors are armed with bows and deadly naginatas, making them powerful in both close and ranged fights. Excellent shots, these men can fire while mounted and ride quickly to critical points of the battle line. Weak only in numbers, the heroes must be careful when near massed archers, and when in close combat against numerically superior forces. They are a deadly force under any general’s hand. \n\nThe samurai ideal of embracing death rather than dishonour plays a large role in the noble, and brutal, mystique of these warriors. The first instance of seppuku, or ritual suicide, is recorded as taking place at the start of the Gempei War. Minamoto no Yorimasa, a 74-year-old poet and warrior, gave up his position with the Taira to join the Minamoto rebellion. He led the Minamoto forces at the Battle of Uji and, following a crushing defeat, chose to take his own life rather than be captured. Legend has it that his retainers took his head, fastened it to a rock, and threw it into a river to keep the Taira from having it. The river had failed to stop the Taira advance. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Gen_Bodyguard \n\nIt is a general’s task to oversee a battle and inspire men whose courage is beginning to falter. He cannot do this if inconsiderate enemies are trying to kill him. His loyal bodyguards consider death in the line of duty to be among the greatest things warriors can hope to achieve. They are hand-picked from among the samurai, having demonstrated great courage and exceptional combat skills. This unit can also carry out vital manoeuvres such as flank attacks or chasing down fleeing enemies, but that may leave the general in danger. Overly aggressive actions should be undertaken only with great care. \n\nFor the great Minamoto generals, the early years of life were perilous: the Taira were determined to wipe out the whole family, and often sent men to kill new-born children. Minamoto Yoshinaka’s mother was forced into hiding following his father’s death, and lived with a peasant woman. Taira warriors soon discovered them and were dispatched to reclaim the Minamoto flag and kill the child. The peasant woman fled with the flag, and Saito Sanemori, the Taira general, found he could not kill the child. The poor peasant had her arm, clutching the Minamoto flag, cut off by the Taira. The arm and flag were later presented as proof that the baby Yoshinaka had been murdered. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Heavy_Ship_Heavy_Ship_Attendants \n\nAble to attack at range with arrow fire, and by boarding, attendant heavy ships are an extremely useful part of any balanced fleet. Like many Japanese vessels, they are intended to use boarding actions to defeat the enemy, with on-board soldiers swarming over the enemy decks. Given the soldiers’ high morale, this is a valid stratagem, and one that regularly wins battles. So, these powerful vessels and their crews are almost capable of taking on anything else afloat: almost, but not quite. Against well-handled large ships with samurai aboard, they will generally get the worst of any fight. Apart from that, they should be a terror to anything else afloat. \n\nNo general of the Gempei period wasted much time with considerations of wind and wave. He knew that the way to victory lay in putting his vessels alongside the enemy as quickly as possible and turning the affair into a floating land battle. The better commanders did recognise that there was a good deal of sense in trying to isolate and attack individual squadrons within enemy fleets, gaining local superiority before moving on to fresh victims. The poorer commanders just let their men have their heads and go into battle pell-mell, trusting to swordsmanship and honour to carry the day. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Heavy_Ship_Heavy_Ship_Samurai \n\nSamurai heavy ships carry large contingents of soldiers armed with bows and swords. This gives them excellent attacks both at range with arrows and in boarding actions. Against smaller ships, the samurai should have little trouble in sweeping all before them. The samurai also have high morale, thanks to their sense of personal honour: they are unlikely to back away from any fight. The only shortcoming is that their comparatively slow speed means that they can be outrun or outmanoeuvred. \n\nThe samurai were not natural sea-warriors. Their strengths, traditions, habits and inclinations were all about combat on good, firm dry land. However, by playing to those strengths they were able to give good account of themselves in battle, as long as boarding actions were involved. In terms of seamanship, the samurai were not much help at sea. Manual labour was considered beneath consideration by the warrior classes, and sailing in medieval craft always required a lot of hard work. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Bow_Attendants \n\nWhile almost any man can be trained to shoot a bow well enough to fire in the general direction of the enemy, skill and dedication are needed to shoot accurately and well in the heat of battle. Bow attendants have good morale and are trained well enough for close combat should the need arise. Like many bowmen, however, they are vulnerable if attacked by cavalry. \n\nArchery has a long history in Japanese warfare and every samurai was expected to master the art. The bow plays a key role in several Japanese myths. Tamamo no Mae, the beautiful courtesan who stole the heart of the Emperor Konoe, was killed by an arrow fired by Miura no Suke, a mighty warrior. Although Tamamo no Mae was a most beautiful and intelligent woman, she was a kitsune, a nine-tailed fox, working for an evil rival to the Emperor. When her secret was revealed she fled, and Miura no Suke gave chase. Aware that her doom was close, Tamamo no Mae appeared to Miura no Suke in a dream and begged for her life. He refused and fired the fatal arrow the very next day. Tamamo no Mae’s fox body turned into the Sessho Seki, the Killing Stone, which legend says kills any who come into contact with it. The stone was haunted by the fox spirit who chose to take the name Hoji, until she was convinced to leave, or exorcised, by Genno, a Buddhist monk. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Bow_Levy \n\nLevies do not possess the prowess or prestige of samurai but they are still a formidable force. The numerical size of this unit allows it to provide mass fire support. Once hand-to-hand fighting starts bow levies should retreat to safety behind the battle line, as they are not trained or equipped for melee. They must also be wary near cavalry, as they have little chance of survival when charged by horsemen. \n\nJapanese bows at the time of the Gempei War can generally be classified as “long bows” although they differ in a number of ways from their European counterparts. The most obvious difference was the position of the grip, but they were also “composites”, made from several different materials, rather than “self-bows” made from a single piece of wood. The bows had to be long to generate power but if the grip had been central it would have been impossible to use the bow from horseback. The lower section would always become entangled with the horse or the saddle. By moving the grip downwards, the asymmetric design allowed the bows to be used easily by mounted archers while keeping them enormously powerful. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Bow_Warrior_Monks \n\nThese warrior monks are armed with powerful bows and can attack enemies at a surprising range. They can also bombard foes with terrifying fire arrows. These are especially dangerous in a country such as Japan where wooden buildings are common. Bow warrior monks need careful handling in the presence of the enemy: they are not trained to fight in melee, and are likely to suffer if they are attacked by cavalry. In all probability the small unit size means that they will be quickly cut down in close combat, even with friendly support. \n\nBow warrior monks practiced archery with the same dedication they gave to their religious duties. Indeed, the skill and stillness required for archery was as much an act of meditation as any amount of monkish contemplation. Long years of practice, however, paid off in battle because their bow techniques were so ingrained as to be done without conscious thought or hesitation. Given reasonable weather, monks would, and did, kill everything and everyone foolish enough to stray within bowshot. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Fire_Bomb_Throwers \n\nFire bombs are made from earthenware horoku pots filled with gunpowder. After the fuse is lit, the thrower swings the bomb around his head by the attached rope and then releases it, hopefully hurling it into the enemy ranks. The resulting blast can be terrible as the pot shatters into razor-sharp shards, and it has a terrifying morale effect too. These fire bombs can also be used against enemy walls. Fire bomb throwers are not close-combat experts, and need protecting from the enemy. They do not have the numerical strength to survive for long in a melee. \n\nIn reality gunpowder was not introduced into Japan until the Mongol invasion of 1274. However, the Chinese were known to be using gunpowder weapons as early as 904AD. Chinese alchemists had spent years trying to discover an elixir that would allow their Emperors to live forever. This quest failed, but one alchemist did create a mixture of 5 parts saltpetre, 15 parts charcoal and 10 parts sulphur that burned violently in the open air, and explosively when confined. Gunpowder would change the face of warfare for generations to come, but quite why anyone would think such a hellish mixture would be an immortality potion is hard to explain! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Naginata_Attendants \n\nUsing naginatas to best effect requires training and dedication, as the long-bladed polearms require strength and co-ordination to use properly. Any idiot can swing a length of wood around, but to do this in the heat of combat and not decapitate yourself or a comrade takes practice. The attendants are a heavy infantry unit, and best used to carry the attack to the foe. They should be deployed in support of the more effective samurai, but can give a good account of themselves in their own right. They should not be positioned where massed ranks of archers can pepper them: arrows are no respecters of their targets’ worth. \n\nAlthough numbering in the thousands, the armies of the Gempei War were largely made up of professional warriors; these were not peasants like the ashigaru of the later Sengoku Jidai period. Warriors were expected to have naginata skills to great effect, but the weapon took time to master. By the time of the Sengoku Jidai, however, vast armies were being raised and the best that many warlords expected from their men was relatively simple spear work. An ashigaru was expected to know how to set his spear to receive a charge, and to take part in the “push of pike” scramble of melee, but not to fight with the same level of skill as those who fought with naginatas. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Naginata_Levy \n\nA naginata is a long staff with a curved blade-like sword on one end. It requires skill to use proficiently, and has much in common with a spear and sword both: it can stab like a spear, or cut like a sword as circumstances require. In skilled hands, for example, it has the reach to decapitate a horseman. Despite their weaponry and their numerical strength, naginata levies are still vulnerable to missile attacks, and should not be expected to defeat the very best quality enemies. \n\nHistorically, the naginata was a weapon much favoured for self-defence by samurai ladies when their men were away at war. The polearm’s length compensated for the difference in height and reach between men and women. It was not, though, a woman’s weapon: the sohei monks used it with some skill, and samurai sometimes favoured it for mounted combat. A competent horseman could stand in the stirrups, whirling a naginata and striking at enemies to left and right. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Naginata_Warrior_Monk_Hero \n\nA warrior with unshakable faith can be very dangerous, for the truly devout have little fear of death. For these monks, faith is not just a matter of conscience, but a weapon. It gives them very good morale in battle. They each carry a naginata, a long staff with a sword-length blade on the end. The long reach makes it effective against cavalry and infantry, but versatility is little protection against missiles. \n\nA naginata was weapon similar to the medieval European glaive: a long, wooden shaft with a curved killing blade. The blade varied in length and was, unlike a European glaive, as carefully made as any sword. These distinctive weapons were closely associated with warrior monks. Among the most famous naginata users was Gochin no Tajima, or “Tajima the Arrow Cutter”, who fought in the battle of Uji in 1180. Tajima was part of a group of warrior monks pursued by the Taira; he made a stand at a bridge, whirling his naginata with such speed and expertise that arrows bounced harmlessly away. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Naginata_Warrior_Monks \n\nA devout warrior can be very dangerous, for the truly devout have little to fear from death. For these monks, faith is not just a matter of conscience, but another weapon and armour for the soul. It gives them very good morale in battle. The weapons they carry are naginatas, a staff as tall as a man with a sword-like blade fixed to the end. The long reach of these polearms makes them effective against both cavalry and infantry, but this versatility is no protection against overwhelming numbers or against missile attack. \n\nThe temples at Enryakuji, Miidera and Nara played a key role in the outcome of the Gempei War, giving each family a fighting force of deadly monk warriors. Each temple’s choice in choosing allies were often heavily influenced by the actions of the other two temples. Although the Nara and Miidera monks joined forces to aid the Minamoto during the Gempei War, they had been mortal enemies in 1117. As described in the war epic “Heike Monogatari”, the monks of Enryakuji and Miidera united against the Nara monks. The Emperor Go Shirakawa is quoted as saying: “Three things refuse to obey my will: the waters of the Kamo River, the fall of backgammon dice and the monks of the Enryakuji Temple.” True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Onna_Bushi \n\nThese fearless women of good, samurai families have outstanding morale and excellent skills in melee. They are most powerful against sword-armed infantry but, if properly handled, they can execute devastating attacks against the flanks of enemy spearmen as well. Because their numbers are few, the onna bushi can be swamped by more numerous, and weaker, enemy units. \n\nJapanese women were trained to defend their homes in times of war but few took part in open battle. Those who did quickly became legends. In the “Heike Monogatari”, an account of the Gempei War, Tomoe Gozen, a female samurai of the Minamoto clan, is described as “especially beautiful, with white skin, long hair, and charming features”. She was also “a remarkably strong archer, and as a swordswoman she was a warrior worth a thousand, ready to confront a demon or a god, mounted or on foot.” She was one of the last warriors standing at the Battle of Awazu, even outliving her master who was shot by an arrow during the fighting. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Samurai_Infantry \n\nTo be a samurai was, originally, to be a mounted warrior with bow and spear; mastery of the sword and fighting on foot were later developments. However, once adopted, these new ways were treated with equal sincerity and dedication. Samurai infantry are master archers, capable of hitting targets at impressively long ranges, and also quite capable of defeating enemies in close combat. However, the numerically small size of the unit does make them vulnerable to being overwhelmed by numerous lesser enemies. A wise commander also makes sure they are carefully handled when cavalry threaten. \n\nWar, the skills of war, and the spirits went hand in hand in Japan. According to the “Azuma Kagami”, a written account of the Gempei War, Minamoto Yoritomo’s first action when summoned to war was to put on ceremonial robes, and bow towards the Iwashimizu Hachiman shrine. By doing this, the Minamoto Shogun placed the destiny of his family in the hands of Hachiman, the kami of war and the Minamoto’s tutelary spirit. To make sure Hachiman continued to favour his clan, Yoritomo had a Shinto priest and a samurai “deeply versed in Shinto ritual” offer prayers on his behalf. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Sword_Attendants \n\nSword attendants are armed with a large powerful swords, impressive weapons that require the strength of both arms to wield effectively in battle. This gives the attendants a fearsome appearance as they charge forward to engage in close combat. Two-handed swords are incredibly sharp and can easily cut through enemies, while the flat sides of the blades can deflect enemy blows. Sword attendants go into battle accepting death and fearing little, but accepting your death and foolishly risking life and limb are not the same thing. They must be wary of threats from cavalry and missile troops, against which they are vulnerable if mishandled. \n\nThe skill and craftsmanship of Japan’s swordsmiths is almost beyond compare. Perhaps only the swords from the forges of Toledo and Dasmascus matched the beauty of Japanese blades, but they did not quite match the sophisticated metallurgy of the Japanese. During the Gempei War the katana, or more correctly, tachi of later centuries had still to develop and become recognised as the classic samurai sword. The skills of the swordsmith were, however, already in evidence. Gempei period swords were just as deadly as their later Sengoku Jidai equivalents when used by an expert. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Inf_Tetsubo_Monk_Hero \n\nArmed with fearsome large, metal-studded clubs, these warrior monks are a terrifying sight as they charge into the attack. The size and weight of tetsubos makes them horribly effective in close combat: armour only serves to spread the impact of a blow, not keep it out. The monks disdain armour, and this makes them vulnerable to missile attacks. They can also be overwhelmed by large numbers of lesser attackers. \n\nThe tetsubo is a weapon that requires immense strength to use properly, so it is hardly surprising that oni, the fearsome demons of Japanese legend, are often credited with using these clubs. The reputed strength of oni is still used in saying such as an “oni with an iron club” to mean something that is simply invincible, and “giving a kanabo to an oni” or giving the advantage to someone who already has quite enough advantages, thank you. Oni are still placated, or warded off, in modern Japan: during the springtime Setsubun festival families throw soybeans outside of their homes to bring good luck and ward off passing oni. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Light_Ship_Light_Ship_Attendants \n\nThe crews of attendant light ships can bombard enemy vessels with arrows, and the ships have enough speed to extend the range and get out of the way of any counterattacks, should the need arise. The ships are also swift enough to menace any stragglers in an enemy fleet. They are not, however, all that much use in close-in, boarding fights. Their crews do not necessarily have the strength to launch successful attacks against other warships, or withstand a boarding attack for long. While they have high morale, the crew are not samurai, and cannot fight as well as samurai. \n\nA balanced fleet in any time of war requires lighter, smaller, handier ships to act as scouts and to escort the heavier warships. These small vessels should not be expected to do much of the work in battle, but they are necessary to keep the enemy off balance, to provide covering fire, and to hopefully lure the opposing admiral into doing something ill-advised, such as pursuing annoyances rather than keeping formation and concentrating on the large enemy ships. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Light_Ship_Light_Ship_Pirate \n\nPiracy is all about profit, and the light ships have the ability to swoop down on unsuspecting victims, board them, and be away before events get out of hand. The crew are excellent sailors, although indifferent fighters: they are armed with swords and bows, but tend to have low morale because they want to live to enjoy their spoils. Faced with proper warships, pirate light ships should keep out of reach and live to fight another day. \n\nThe Chinese were understandably outraged by Japanese pirate attacks in what they regarded as “their” waters. A Chinese trade embargo against Japan largely miscarried because the pirates did not stop their attacks. They became the sole source of desirable Chinese goods inside Japan instead. At one point Chinese ambassadors were sent to Japan to demand action: the envoys were killed at Court and the piracy continued. The Koreans were no more successful in suppressing piracy along their coastline. Given this history of piracy, it is surprising that the Japanese never developed into a powerful maritime nation as did the piratical English with their “sea dogs” in the Atlantic and Caribbean. Then again, the English never had to face the potential wrath of the Chinese empire. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Light_Ship_Light_Ship_Samurai \n\nSamurai light ships are the “cavalry” of sea-battles: quick, nimble and capable of striking down unwary enemies. Their samurai crews are armed with bows and swords, meaning that they can attack their targets during the approach, and be surprisingly strong during a boarding action too. Better still, as samurai they have good, solid morale and are unlikely to waver in battle. However, they are vulnerable if fighting larger ships, simply because the respective numerical crew strengths that can be brought to bear. A light ship carries fewer men, and can therefore sustain fewer casualties. \n\nA wise commander uses these ships to attack and possibly capture stragglers in an enemy fleet. Their speed means that, against heavier, slower enemy ships, the light ships have the advantage in choosing where and when to fight. Given their relative high speed in action, they can decide whether or not to accept battle at close quarters, engage in an archery contest, or even harass enemies and then withdraw when pursued. Their “bite” when brought to battle is more than adequate thanks to the samurai aboard. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Medium_Ship_Fire_Bomb_Medium_Ship \n\nFirebomb ships are unusual vessels because they are used to attack the fabric of other ships rather than kill their crews. They have a short range attack that causes much damage, but are vulnerable to boarding counter-attacks: fireship crews are not trained for close combat. Most of their expertise concerns their dangerous and inflammatory weapons, which are pots filled with assorted demonic sulphurous chemicals, and men who use such devices need much courage before they even face an enemy. This gives them excellent morale in battle, as any danger from enemies has to be measured against the danger of the firebombs themselves. Firebomb ship crews have the Banzai special ability. \n\nAlthough gunpowder weapons were not employed during the Gempei War, the technology was available in China and would have been known to the Japanese by repute if nothing else. Gunpowder, and assorted unpleasant ways of using it against enemies, had been invented by accident in China some 200 years earlier. Alchemists had been searching for an elixir of immortality, a quest common to the profession across the world. European alchemists would spend centuries looking for the “philosopher’s stone” for its immortal benefits. Gunpowder and its successors, on the other hand, are almost certainly one of the greatest causers of mortality yet discovered. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Medium_Ship_Medium_Ship_Attendants \n\nAttendant medium ships are solid, dependable vessels without any particular weaknesses. Their all-round usefulness, however, means that they are not outstandingly fast: they are a compromise, and like all compromises, excellence in any particular area is sacrificed in the interests of adequacy overall. Their crews are armed with bows and swords, giving them the ability to board enemies or stand off and pepper them with arrows. The crew have good morale, but they are not capable of taking on samurai in an equal or fair fight. A good commander needs to give them every advantage if they are to succeed against samurai. \n\nHistorically most naval powers have had to build ships that are a compromise between speed, manoeuvrability and combat power. They also have to keep an accountant’s eye on the cost of their warships. Usually the end result is a ship that can do most things quite well, but nothing brilliantly. The Japanese were no different in having to address these problems, with an additional one that their fighting men regarded satisfying honour as more important than good seamanship. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Medium_Ship_Medium_Ship_Pirate \n\nThere is only profit in a ship that is taken intact, so pirates specialise in boarding their targets to capture them. They can pepper their enemies with arrows as they approach, but this is only to weaken and dishearten their victims. Pirates are not as well-trained in combat as land soldiers, and more interested in personal survival, giving them shakier morale; profits from piracy cannot be enjoyed by the dead. \n\nJapanese pirates were a perennial problem for the Japanese and their neighbours, particularly the Koreans and the Chinese. Indeed, the Japanese word “wako” is a direct borrowing from the Chinese term for these enterprising and murderous businessmen. The Chinese even tried banning all non-governmental trade with Japan in the hope that this would drive the wako out of business, but it merely made them more inventive and aggressive. Naturally, the wako took full advantage of every period of instability in Japan to go raiding. They were also successful enough to be copied by other nationalities who attacked the Chinese and posed as Japanese pirates while doing so. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Medium_Ship_Medium_Ship_Samurai \n\nThese medium ships are well-suited to most naval tasks, and have no real weaknesses. Their samurai crews are all excellent warriors, if not particularly good sailors, and are armed with swords and bows. A samurai medium ship can stand away from a target and pepper it with arrows, or close and board; the samurai warriors make it a formidable force in any boarding action. This dual use gives a commander many options when it comes to battle, although the primary use of these ships is in boarding actions. \n\nThis ship type is ideally suited to the tactics of the Gempei period. Naval battles nearly always became large scale boarding actions as ships were lashed together and their crews fought savage hand-to-hand battles. Even more so than land battles, no quarter was asked or given, and the losers could expect nothing better than a watery grave. As far and as often as possible, a sea-general would try to engineer mass boarding battles so that his warriors’ fighting spirit could be used to full effect. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Genpei_Trade_Ship_Trade_Ship \n\nTrade ships are not intended to get involved in any kind of battle. They exist to make a profit carrying cargoes, and crews should only be expected to fight only in defence of their own lives and their masters’ goods. At need, trade ships could be used in battle to board enemies, but against any but the weakest of opposition the prospects of success would be very slim. \n\nJapan is a land of rugged, difficult terrain and roads were few and far between. During the medieval period, the easiest way of moving any kind of goods over any distance was by water. A few men with a ship could move cargoes that would have required hundreds of loads on land. The ever-present risk of pirate attack meant that no trade ship could ever be completely defenceless, but the best protection against pirates was always to see them coming and sail in the opposite direction as speedily as possible! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Heavy_Ship_Heavy_Bune \n\nA heavy bune is a bulky, boxy warship with thick wooden-panelled sides to protect the ship and crew alike. Inside it carries a large number of boarding troops, some armed with bows to fire from the loopholes in the panels. The size and weight of the vessel can make it slow and unresponsive, but it is not built for speed. Instead, it serves as a floating platform in battle. Sailing in close to an enemy ship, the crew uses grappling hooks to lash the vessels together, and then the boarding party engage the enemy in hand-to-hand combat.\n\nDuring the Sengoku Jidai, large ships were common. The ‘o ataka bune’ resembled a floating castle and carried armed samurai and ashigaru as well as sailors to man it. The Japanese did not rely on cannon to sink enemy ships, but would board and fight face-to-face as if they were on land. The o ataka bune was specifically built for this tactic and had a folding bridge section that opened so that troops could cross from one vessel to another. This way of fighting was in keeping with the samurai ideal of combat, where a warrior would seek out a worthy opponent and fight in single combat. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Heavy_Ship_Nihon_Maru \n\nThe Nihon Maru is an extremely heavy ship. It is, in fact, the largest ship used for naval warfare. Looking very much like a vast floating fortress, it has a massive superstructure with an impressive three-storey keep as a centrepiece. It is a physical manifestation of the Shogun’s power, and its presence is enough to raise the morale of nearby friendly ships and keep them fighting. It carries a large number of soldiers for boarding actions, but its sheer size and extravagant design makes it a slow and cumbersome vessel. \n\nHistorically, the Nihon Maru was a huge, three-decker flagship, built for the daimyo Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1591. It was a lavish masterpiece that symbolised Hideyoshi’s wealth, power and ambition and it was decorated with Shinto designs and a brocade curtain. Although built to impress visitors, it did see action during the Korean War of 1592 when the Koreans attacked the harbour of Angolp’o. The Nihon Maru had just returned from battle and was an irresistible target for the Koreans’ fire arrows. Fortunately, the ship’s three-fold curtain functioned as an arrow catcher, and a team of carpenters kept the ship seaworthy by quickly repairing damage caused by Korean cannons, ensuring the Nihon Maru survived the onslaught. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Heavy_Ship_O_Ataka_Bune \n\nThis massive vessel is based on the heavy bune with some improvements. It carries a large number of troops for boarding actions, and its thick, wooden panels are covered in iron plating. This makes the hull particularly strong. Despite being a big ship, it can still achieve a speed comparable to an heavy bune. This matters little as the ship is built for size and power: it sails alongside an enemy ship, attaches itself with grappling hooks and then troops swarm onto the enemy deck. However, the o ataka bune is still vulnerable to cannon and no matter how thick the wood it will still burn if hit by fire arrows.\n\nIn 1576, Oda Nobunaga besieged the stronghold of the rebellious Ikko-Ikki warrior monks, hoping to end their opposition to his rule. The monks had powerful allies in the Mori clan, and Oda realised he would have to prevent Mori supplies reaching the Ikko-Ikki if he was to be victorious. Mori naval superiority triumphed in the first battle but Oda made a second attempt, this time with six specially constructed o ataka bune vessels. These ships were giants covered in iron plating, and gave him victory, despite their unfortunate tendency to capsize in action! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Heavy_Naginata_Marathon_Monks \n\nThe marathon monks take the training of the body, and therefore the spirit, to extreme lengths. Faith makes them take on gruelling marches until they have honed their bodies to perfection. This gives them incredible speed and resistance to fatigue on the battlefield. With each man carrying a naginata, they are deadly fighters when they arrive at a melee. They are not invulnerable, though, and can be shot down like other men, and need careful handling when facing other naginata-armed troops. \n\nThe marathon monks of Mount Hiei followed the Tendai school of Buddhism. Unlike most other branches of Buddhism, Tendai adherents maintained that enlightenment could be achieved in a single lifetime. In order to attain their goal, the monks underwent the “Kaihogyo”, a gruelling test of physical endurance that saw them travelling a distance of 30km a day on foot, 100 days in a row, for five consecutive years. The target then increased to 60km for 100 days in the sixth year and 84km every day for the 100 days of travel in the seventh year. Throughout this challenge the monks were expected to keep their bodies upright and their long straw hats completely straight, no matter how rocky the path. To call this epic journey a “marathon” seems something of an understatement! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Heavy_Naginata_Samurai \n\nThe naginata is a long staff with a curved blade fixed to the end. Its length and flexibility of use make it a great melee weapon. Like all samurai, these warriors have trained hard to achieve full mastery of their chosen weapon and excel when fighting enemy cavalry and infantry. Despite their versatility, they are still vulnerable to the very best cavalry and infantry and they have little protection against missile attacks.\n\nHistorically, the naginata proved to be a very adaptable weapon, used by a variety of different groups in many ways. Samurai women were trained to use it in self-defence when their men were away at war, where the polearm’s length compensated for the height disparity between men and women. The sohei warrior monks used it en masse, which suited their mob-like formations, while samurai used it both when mounted and on foot. To extend its already formidable reach, a samurai would hold the end of his naginata and whirl it above his head, or stand up in the stirrups of their horses and use slashing motions at the enemy.   True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Heavy_Naginata_Warrior_Monk_Hero \n\nThe warrior monk hero and his attendants are a fearsome force when assaulting an enemy line or acting as the anchor of a defensive position. Their spirit and faith makes them almost-unbreakable in combat: they simply do not know how to retreat! They are excellent in melee against both infantry and cavalry, and can do horrendous damage to any missile units they attack. However, because of the unit’s numbers, the monks are vulnerable to being swamped by larger forces. \n\nOn the battlefield, they are quite distinctive in their cowls and headscarves. Naginata warrior monks are heavily armoured, and carry the fearsome naginata, a razor-sharp blade set on a long pole-arm. In the hands of a skilled expert, a naginata can disembowel a horse, or cleave a rider in two. \n\nDespite retiring from the world to monasteries, many monks had martial arts training, and saw this as a way of attaining enlightenment. Their training often made them very deadly enemies, particularly as they also had a sense of social justice. They would fight hard for what they thought was right, not just for a lord. This made them formidable and dangerous enemies, and excellent allies when they could be persuaded to support a daimyo. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Heavy_Naginata_Warrior_Monks \n\nA warrior with an unshakable faith can be very dangerous, for the truly devout have little to fear from death. For these monks, faith is not just a matter of conscience, but another weapon and one that gives them very good morale in battle. The weapon they carry is a naginata, a long staff with a blade fixed to the end. The polearm’s long reach makes it effective against cavalry and infantry, but this versatility is no protection against specialist troops.\n\nA naginata was, and still is, a polearm weapon similar to the medieval European glaive: a long, wooden shaft with a curved killing blade. The blade varied in length and was made to the same quality standard as a sword blade. These distinctive looking weapons were closely associated with warrior monks, and most famously used by Gochin no Tajima (Tajima the “arrow cutter”) at the battle of Uji in 1180. Gochin was part of a group of samurai and warrior monks pursued by the Taira clan. He made a defensive stand at a bridge, whirling his naginata with such expertise that the enemy’s arrows harmlessly bounced away. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Heavy_Onna_Bushi This unit is made up of women warriors armed with the naginata, a long pole arm that is tipped with a deadly curved sword-blade. These fearless samurai women have outstanding morale and excel in melee combat. They are most powerful against sword-armed infantry but if properly handled, they can execute devastating flank attacks against enemy spearmen as well. Because their numbers are few, the onna bushi can be swamped by larger, less skilled enemy units. \n\nHistorically, Japanese women were trained to defend their homes in times of war but few took part in open battle. Those who did quickly became legends. In the “Heike Monogatari”, an account of the Genpei War, Tomoe Gozen, a female samurai of the Minamoto clan, is described as “especially beautiful, with white skin, long hair, and charming features”. She was also recorded as being “a remarkably strong archer, and as a swordswoman she was a warrior worth a thousand, ready to confront a demon or a god, mounted or on foot.” She was one of the last warriors standing at the Battle of Awazu, even outliving her master who was struck down by an arrow during the fight. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Heavy_Warrior_Nuns \n\nWarrior nuns do not wear armour, but then they are usually trained well enough not to need it. They rely on skill to avoid attacks, although they are vulnerable to missile fire. They are armed with the deadly naginata, a sword blade on a quarterstaff-length pole. In the hands of an expert, a naginata can be used to cut down a foe, disembowel a horse, decapitate the rider, and turn aside any counter stroke. Women who carry the naginata are rarely less than experts in its use. \n\nThere was a long tradition of samurai women defending their castles and homes when their men were on campaign. Women who became nuns did not necessarily retire from the world like their European, Christian counterparts. Their religious devotion did not interfere with caring about their families’ fate and defence. The last hurrah of women warriors was in 1868, during the violent struggles that accompanied the Meiji Restoration. The women of Aizu stood alongside their men in opposing the new central government, and fought to the last; twenty-two of them eventually committed suicide rather than be captured. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Bow_Ashigaru \n\nThese soldiers do not possess the prowess or prestige of samurai, but they are still a formidable force. In the same time it takes to fire and reload a firearm once, these archers can loose a dozen arrows upon the enemy. Once hand-to-hand fighting starts they should retreat to safety behind the battle line, as bow ashigaru are not trained or properly equipped for melee. They must also be wary of cavalry, having little defence against a charge.\n\nHistorically, bow ashigaru were used as skirmishers and sharpshooters, and were also expected to take part in close combat once they had fired all their arrows. Perhaps surprisingly, they were not made obsolete by the arrival of guns. While gunners reloaded, archers could continue to fire arrows, providing cover and maintaining the pressure on an enemy.\n\nIt was the job of the yumi ko gashira, an ashigaru commander, to judge when the enemy was in range and when to fire so that no arrows were wasted. Assistants would be ready with well-stocked boxes of arrows for resupply, and, if they ran out, an archer could always pick up enemy arrows and return them to the original owners! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Bow_Bandits \n\nThese ruthless bandits appear to able to hide behind a single cherry blossom! This is not quite the case, but this is of little comfort to their enemies. They can hide in almost any terrain, move and remain hidden, and even fire their bows and remain hidden! As a force for discomforting and harassing an enemy in wooded or other congested terrain, they have few equals: it is difficult for an enemy to fight someone he cannot see. Like many archers, however, they will be quickly cut to pieces if they are engaged in melee, and can be ridden down by cavalry if left in an exposed position. \n\nThe Hattori were one of many smaller clans in and around Iga province and, like many families with local connections in the area, they were well aware of the ninjutsu tradition kept alive in Iga province. Ninja were not the end of the local lawlessness in what was a fairly lawless time. Banditry was not only common, it was sometimes the only way for the people of Iga to survive; they preyed upon their neighbours and rivals. It did, however, make them a useful source of underhanded, murderous and sneaky fellows in times of war. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Bow_Hero These archers have few equals. They loose arrows at breathtaking speed and can fire whistling arrows which make enemies quail. Their deadliest weapons are fire arrows, flaming projectiles that have a devastating effect on wooden structures and people alike. These archers have nigh-unbreakable morale, but their lack of numbers leaves them vulnerable if attacked in melee by large enemy forces, as they are not trained well in the arts of hand-to-hand combat.\n\nJapanese legends tell of Tawara Toda, an archer who came to the aid of the Dragon King, Kami Ryujin. Whilst crossing a bridge on Lake Biwa, Tawara Toda stepped over a huge serpent that turned into a dragon: Kami Ryujin. The Dragon King begged Tawara Toda to help him banish a giant centipede that was laying waste to his kingdom. The two went to fight the centipede. Tawara Toga fired two arrows into its body, but to no effect. He considered their predicament, wetted the end of an arrow with his saliva and shot again. The centipede was slain and Kami Ryujin rewarded Tawara Toda with an inexhaustible sack of rice, hence Tawara Toda or “Lord Rice Bale”. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Bow_Samurai \n\nArchery has a long history in Japanese warfare and every samurai is expected to have mastered the art. Less skilled warriors can be trained to fire en masse, but it takes dedication and skill to shoot with accuracy, particularly in the heat of battle. Bow samurai can also shoot fearsome flaming missiles. These troops have high morale and are well-trained so can fight in melee if needed. They are vulnerable if attacked by cavalry.\n\nIn early samurai culture, proficiency with the bow was just as important as with the katana. In the 12th century, battles often started with an archery duel between the two factions, signalled by the firing of special whistling arrows. The Sengoku Jidai saw the bow marginalised as warfare changed. Individual battles of skill were replaced by sheer numbers and mass volleys. Also, the arquebus could be used by ordinary foot soldiers, and the spear could be used in close combat. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Bow_Wako \n\nThese men are pirates with no honour and no code to follow. They fight to protect the regions they control and live off plundered goods and by extorting money from others. True, they are not samurai, but they still know how to fight!\n\nIn the time it takes to fire and reload a matchlock firearm, these men can loose a dozen arrows at the enemy with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Once the enemy starts getting close, these pirates retreat behind friendly melee troops for protection. They are not armed or trained for close combat and are very vulnerable to cavalry attacks.\n\nThe Japanese ability to deal with their pirate problem was hindered by the civil war and the lack of a strong central government. The Chinese and Koreans, who were on the receiving end of many wako depredations, continually demanded that the Japanese deal with the pirates, but each solution only seemed to halt them for a short while. Attacks on known wako ports, mass beheadings and even bans on foreign trade did not seem to make much difference to the wako. In 1588, Toyotomi Hideyoshi declared that any fighting in Japanese waters was illegal at the same time as he banned peasants and other non-samurai from owning swords. This effectively made piracy almost impossible, also hindering anyone thinking of raising a revolt. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Bow_Warrior_Monks \n\nWarrior monks are armed with powerful bows that can send arrows into enemies at a surprising, and fatal, distance. They can also bombard foes with fire arrows, weapons that are both incendiary and terrifying in equal measure, especially in a country such as Japan where buildings are largely made of wood. These warrior monks need careful handling in the presence of the enemy. They are not specially trained to fight in melee, and are likely to suffer if they are attacked by cavalry. Because of their small numbers, they will not last long if they are left in close combat, regardless of any friendly support.\n\nBow warrior monks practice archery with the same dedication they give to their religious duties. Indeed, the skill and still poise required for archery practice is as much an act of meditation as any amount of quiet, monkish contemplation. Long years of practice, however, pay off in battle because the technique of using a bow is so ingrained as to be done without thought or hesitation. Given reasonable weather, monks could, and did, kill anything and anyone foolish enough to stray into range. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Daikyu_Samurai \n\nArmed with the powerful daikyu, these samurai are capable of breathtaking feats of archery. The sheer size of their weapon dramatically increases their range and their accuracy is the envy of many. Due to its size the daikyu takes longer to nock than other bows giving these warriors slower reload times, but the damage it causes on impact more than compensates. Like most archers Chosokabe daikyu samurai are weak in melee and vulnerable to attack from enemy cavalry. \n\nThe bow has always played an important role in the myths and legends of warrior societies. In The Tale of the Heike the Emperor Konoe fell ill after being plagued night after night by terrible nightmares. His loyal samurai, Minamoto no Yorimasa, realised that a dark cloud had appeared above the palace shortly before the Emperor fell ill. Determined to get to the bottom of this phenomenon, he spent all night on the palace roof and in the early hours of the morning fired an arrow into the centre of the dark cloud. From the midst of the cloud fell the body of a nue, a legendary creature with the head of a monkey, the body of a tanuki, the legs of a tiger and a snake for a tail. A bringer of misfortune and illness, it was the nue that had caused the Emperor’s illness, and with its death he was cured. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Heavy_Gunners \n\nThese gunners carry immensely powerful, heavy pieces. The large calibre bullets fired from the oversized barrels will not only kill, but can also do damage to buildings. The guns are expensive and weighty; they are in short supply as are men strong enough to use them. As a result, the unit is numerically rather small, and this will count against them in close combat. The musketeers also move relatively slowly, leaving them vulnerable to cavalry attacks. \n\nEuropean “harquebuses” of the period came in many different sizes and calibres. Standardisation was almost unknown, and some of the huge bullets fired look ridiculously large to modern eyes. However, when Portuguese traders were blown off course and arrived in Japan, the Shimazu were quick to recognise the military worth of the two guns aboard the vessel. Their master weaponsmith was a master sword maker but, sadly, this did not help him copy the European guns. Eventually a deal was done: the smith got lessons in gun making from a second group of Portuguese traders; they got the smith’s daughter. A harsh bargain for harsh times, perhaps. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Ashigaru \n\nThe role of matchlock ashigaru is to unleash massed gun volleys upon the enemy, keeping them confused and, in the process, weakening them enough for a frontline charge. Once fired, the matchlock guns take a long time to reload, but their range, noise, and effect on enemy morale more than compensates for this lack of speed. The smoke and fire they produce can be very disorientating to enemies, particularly when targets are dropping all around. When the main fighting starts matchlock gunners should retreat behind melee troops. They do not have the training to fight in close combat and have no defence against a cavalry charge.\n\nHistorically, it was considered a great honour for any samurai to fire the first shot of a battle. The honour traditionally fell to the samurai archers, who opened most battles with an archery duel. However, the Sengoku Jidai introduced the European arquebus, guns which required much less skill to use than the bow. The archery duel became an exchange of gunfire and, as the guns were largely carried by ashigaru, the first shots were now fired by simple foot soldiers. The ashigaru gunners were led by a teppo ko gashira, a man chosen for his skill and courage, who ordered when to load, when to fire and signalled his superiors when the enemy had been weakened enough for a charge to be attempted. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Ashigaru_Otomo \n\nThe role of matchlock ashigaru is to unleash massed volleys of gunfire upon the enemy, keeping them confused and, in the process, weakening them enough for a frontline charge. Those belonging to the Christian Otomo clan fight with great religious fervour, which increases the accuracy of their fire and enables them to reload at a faster rate than other troops of a similar class. Once fired, matchlock guns take a long time to reload, but their range, noise, and effect on enemy morale more than compensates for this lack of speed. The smoke and fire they produce can be very disorientating to targeted enemies, particularly when men are dropping all around. When the main fighting starts matchlock gunners should retreat behind melee troops. They do not have the training to fight in close combat and have no defence against a cavalry charge.\n\nComing to prominence during the Kamakura Shogunate following the Gempei War, the Otomo clan remained at the forefront of feudal politics for the next four hundred years. Alongside the Shimazu, the Otomo were one of the largest clans on Kyushu, and had early contacts with the Portuguese, soon establishing trade links. Their daimyo, Otomo Sorin, saw the benefits to the clan’s prosperity and wanted the emerging gun technology that European trade could bring. Following the arrival of the Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier in 1549, and his subsequent meeting with the daimyo, Otomo Sorin showed tolerance towards the Jesuit conversion of Japanese subjects to Catholicism, eventually converting himself in 1578. During the Sengoku Jidai, the Otomo fought against both the Shimazu and the Mori clans. They retained control of their lands into the Edo Period by playing a minor role during Tokugawa Ieyasu’s Sekigahara Campaign. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Samurai \n\nMatchlock samurai fire volleys into enemy ranks to disorientate and weaken them enough so a charge cannot be effectively resisted, as it can be devastating to see comrades falling in a hail of bullets. The matchlock samurai fight in a similar way to the ashigaru, but are much more accurate in their fire.\n\nOnce fired, reloading guns is a slow business, and it can leave the unit vulnerable to cavalry attacks. The matchlock samurai should retreat behind friendly melee troops once the real fighting begins.\n\nHistorically, the majority of arquebuses were used by ashigaru troops. The guns were reasonably simple to use and arming the ashigaru with them was quicker and cheaper than training archers. It also freed up the samurai to participate in combat using weapons that required more skill, such as the katana or bow. The samurai who did use arquebuses were expected to use their better skills to take out single, important enemies rather than completely rely on volleys like the ashigaru. This distinction between fighting styles for the same weapon could also be seen with the bow and the spear, where the emphasis for the samurai was to pick targets and engage them in matched single combat. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Samurai_Otomo \n\nMatchlock samurai fire volleys into enemy ranks to disorientate and weaken them enough so a charge cannot be effectively resisted, as it can be devastating to see comrades falling in a hail of bullets. The Otomo’s matchlock samurai fight in a similar way to matchlock ashigaru, but are much more accurate when firing and can reload at a much faster rate. Reloading guns is still a slow process and it can leave the unit vulnerable to cavalry attacks. Matchlock samurai should retreat behind friendly melee troops once the real fighting begins.\n\nComing to prominence during the Kamakura Shogunate following the Gempei War, the Otomo clan remained at the forefront of feudal politics for the next four hundred years. Alongside the Shimazu, the Otomo were one of the largest clans on Kyushu, and had early contacts with the Portuguese, soon establishing trade links. Their daimyo, Otomo Sorin, saw the benefits to the clan’s prosperity and wanted the emerging gun technology that European trade could bring. Following the arrival of the Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier in 1549, and his subsequent meeting with the daimyo, Otomo Sorin showed tolerance towards the Jesuit conversion of Japanese subjects to Catholicism, eventually converting himself in 1578. During the Sengoku Jidai, the Otomo fought against both the Shimazu and the Mori clans. They retained control of their lands into the Edo Period by playing a minor role during Tokugawa Ieyasu’s Sekigahara Campaign. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Warrior_Monks \n\nA warrior of unshakable faith can be very dangerous: he has no fear of death because his cause is righteous and he serves a higher purpose. Warrior monks are men of such faith, with strong morale, and they are especially dangerous when armed with matchlock guns.\n\nThe guns are fired in volley and, when combined with the monk’s accuracy in aiming, have a devastating effect on any enemy. The matchlock warrior monks must be wary of cavalry attacks, as slow reloading times can leave them vulnerable in melee.\n\nDuring the Sengoku Jidai, warrior monks were a threat to the ruling samurai. Individuals did not have to be ordained to become warrior monks: they simply had to have the right level of fanatical devotion to fight for their beliefs. Oda Nobunaga, in his mission to unify Japan, fought long and hard against the warrior monk sects and, in 1570 at the battle of Ishiyami Honganji, his army was left reeling by their powerful arquebus volleys.\n\nWarrior monks became well known for their expertise in firearms, the Negoroji sect in particular. This was due to their early adoption of European weapons and regular competitive training in using them. In fact, some devoted more time to practicing with their guns than to their religious studies! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Missile_Portuguese_Tercos \n\nThese troops are easily recognisable on any Japanese battlefield thanks to their European armour. They wear iron breastplates and morions: helmets often seen as being of a “Spanish” style. They are well trained with their matchlock muskets and can lay a withering fire upon their enemies. In melee, they can give a reasonable account of themselves if attacked. It is, however, a foolish and wasteful commander who throws them into close combat as assault troops against samurai.\n\nThe Portuguese “terco” was a direct copy of the Spanish “tercio”, a powerful battle formation divided into “thirds” armed with, respectively, matchlocks, pikes and swords. Within each tercio, these troops acted to support each other and shield weaknesses, making them battle-winning units in Spain’s many wars. Spanish tercios dominated European battlefields for many years in the 16th Century. Other powers, as is always the case with military fashions, rushed to copy the style of winners. The Portuguese were no different, and their tercos included the romantically named “Terco of Adventurers” recruited from among the sons of the nobility and gentry. It is not unreasonable to assume that these well-regarded soldiers, and particularly matchlock gunners, would have been sent out, if requested, to aid Portuguese allies. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Spear_Bulletproof_Samurai \n\nHeavily armoured and highly trained, these spearmen are able to withstand enemy musketry and keep going forwards. Their heavy armour can keep out many bullets, but it makes them slow moving. However, their strength and offensive spirit more than makes up for that shortcoming: they really can charge musketeers with a good chance of success. Their spears also make them a formidable force against cavalrymen. \n\nSamurai armour was, and is, renowned for its beauty and intricate designs but, as warfare changed following the introduction of muskets, beautiful workmanship had to evolve. Leather layers in armour had been enough to protect against arrows, but bullets demanded new standards for armour. Like European armourers, Japanese smiths would prove their wares by firing bullets at it. Original pieces of the period still retain the “proof” dents from successfully keeping out a bullet. A sensible warrior bought or used armour only if it had such damage! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Spear_Extra_Long_Yari_Ashigaru \n\nThese ashigaru are an exceptionally useful anti-cavalry force, and strong defensively as long as their morale holds up. However, their long spears can count against them at times. Against sword-armed infantry in close combat, the length of the spears is next to useless. They are also vulnerable to missile attacks, like many other specialist troops. Men, no matter how trained or equipped, all die in the same way when perforated by arrows or bullets. \n\nAll clans experimented with weapons and tactics: spear length varied enormously, with some Oda units essentially carrying pikes, spears up to 5m long. It is fascinating to speculate what might have happened to Japanese warfare if the Sengoku Jidai had not ended when it did. Would the samurai have evolved a style of battle that paralleled the “pike and shot” tactics of 17th Century Europe? European pikemen, in theory, protected the musketeers who shot at the enemy but had ridiculously long reloading times. Often, and partly as a result of the desultory rates of gunfire, European battles became giant shoving matches as the pikemen moved forwards to physically push their enemies off the field. Men were so crammed together that it was difficult for them to fight as individuals in any way. Would the Japanese have gone the same way, or would samurai honour and individualistic glory have triumphed? True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Spear_Yari_Ashigaru \n\nThe spear is a remarkably flexible weapon in tactical terms. It can be used in single or mass combat and is equally effective for attack and defence. Yari ashigaru are armed with very long spears that are almost pikes, and can be used to lead a battle charge into battle or act as pincers. They are well-drilled, but lack the skill and dedication of samurai. Yari ashigaru are most effective when they work together as a block, forming a wall of spears. Any cavalry that charges into a well-managed formation of yari ashigaru will be wiped out as the horses and riders are skewered.\n\nBy the Sengoku Jidai, the yari was the most common weapon issued to ashigaru and samurai, although they used different fighting techniques and tactics. The ashigaru would use spears in formation, particularly against cavalry charges. Each would take a kneeling position and form a line, laying their spears on the ground in front of them. As the charge grew nearer they would be ordered to raise their spears and, at the last moment, thrust the spears upwards into the belly of the horse. Once a spear was in a target it was to be held firmly in place until otherwise ordered.  True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Spear_Yari_Hero Heavily armoured, these skilled spearmen know no fear; as defensive troops they are second to none, ideal for defending key positions in a castle. Their weapon gives them the upper hand against enemy cavalry and makes them a force to be reckoned with on the battlefield. However, it does leave them vulnerable to flanking manoeuvres and larger enemy units, particularly skilled swordsmen, could overwhelm this small group of warriors.\n\nJapan itself owes its creation to the tip of a spear: Izanagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto dipped Amanonuboko, the “Heavenly Jewelled Spear”, into the sea and, when they removed it, the first drip to leave its point formed the island Onogoro. It was here that the gods made their home and produced their first child following an unsuccessful wedding ceremony in which Izanami spoke out of turn. The deformed child was set adrift, and the couple re-consecrated their vows. Izanami then gave birth to eight children, who became the islands of Japan. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Spear_Yari_Samurai \n\nYari samurai are extremely adaptable in battle. Spears can be used at the charge, while in defence they form an almost impenetrable wall against cavalry. The length of spears makes them especially effective against mounted troops, where they can pierce the breast of the horse or skewer a rider. In melee, yari samurai are skilled warriors that perform well against all but the best infantry troops. However, they have no defence against missile attacks, lacking the mobility to move quickly out of range.\n\nThe yari became increasingly popular among generals as the Sengoku Jidai progressed: ashigaru as well as samurai warriors were armed with it, though each used it very differently. Ashigaru yari were much longer, as they were used to create a wall of spears, and even then the length varied from clan to clan. For the samurai, the yari became used as they realised that the bow made them vulnerable when in close combat. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Special_Fire_Bomb_Throwers \n\nFire bombs are made from earthenware horoku pots that are filled with gunpowder and then lit by a fuse. As the fuse burns down, the thrower swings the bomb by an attached rope and then releases it at the right moment, hopefully hurling it at the enemy to explode. The resulting blast can be terrible as the pot shatters, and has a damaging effect on enemy morale too. These grenades can be used against enemy walls in sieges, but are just as effective when used as fire support in a field battle. These men are not experts in close combat, and need protecting from the enemy. They do not have the numbers to survive for long in melee.\n\nJapan’s first introduction to gunpowder happened during the Mongol invasion of 1274. At this time, the samurai were still fighting according to strict tradition: they would find a worthy opponent, declare their notable heritage and achievements, and then begin a set of single combats. The Mongols, however, fought very differently, and when the samurai met them at Hakata Bay, they were greeted with a barrage of dishonourable but effective explosive bombs. Despite this initial experience of gunpowder’s usefulness and effects, the samurai would not properly adopt it for another 300 years. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Special_Kisho_Ninjas \n\nKisho ninja have mastered the art of invisibility, making them highly effective assassins who possess terrifying supernatural powers! In fact, their skills are actually the product of a lifetime of intensive training, cunning and the clever use of misdirection. The ability to move about largely unseen on the battlefield means they appear from nowhere, launch an assault on an enemy general and then vanish before they are caught or killed.\n\nIn addition to a small number of deadly fire bombs, they are armed with blinding grenades to disorientate an enemy for a short time, reducing their fighting ability. To remain as stealthy as possible kisho ninja operate in small numbers, so must avoid prolonged close combat because they cannot afford to take many casualties.\n\nHistorically, ninja were rarely used on the battlefield itself, although their fighting prowess was certainly equal to the challenge. Instead, a daimyo would hire them to undertake espionage missions or assassinate rivals. The ninja’s role was to carry out tasks that others could not honourably accomplish, as they were not constrained by bushido, the code that governed samurai behaviour. During sieges, ninja would infiltrate an enemy’s castle in disguise, gather intelligence and cause confusion by, for example, setting fires - leading the enemy to assume he had turncoats within his walls. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Sword_Katana_Ashigaru \n\nThese foot soldiers carry katana: swords renowned for their razor sharpness and cutting power. The ashigaru form part of the main battle line and, once enemy infantry has been sufficiently weakened by missile troops, the ashigaru charge in and engage in melee.\n\nThough ashigaru lack the swordsmanship of samurai, the sharp katana does most of the work. Once it cuts into an enemy, momentum carries it through, carving bone and flesh like silk. Because ashigaru don’t have the same social standing as samurai, their morale isn’t as good, and they are weak against cavalry charges or missile attacks.\n\nIn 1588, the Japanese regent Toyotomi Hideyoshi banned all peasants from owning arms to remove the threat of peasant revolts and to hopefully limit other daimyo’s attempts to seize power. This measure also meant the existing ashigaru rose in stature. Once they had been little more than trained peasantry who split their time between farming and soldiering, but now they were professional soldiers. While of a lower class than the samurai, they could fight in battle without worrying how their crops were faring. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Sword_Katana_Hero This small group of skilled swordsmen know this and each has devoted himself to the perfection of his art. Their unbreakable morale and skill is legendary and inspirational. The controlled frenzy of katana sensei also adds to their ferocity, increasing their speed and power when fighting. However, their small numbers do mean they are more vulnerable to being outnumbered by an enemy unit.\n\nEmbracing the way of the warrior is the path to enlightenment. Miyamoto Musashi (1584 - 1645) was one of Japan’s most famous swordsmen. His exploits quickly became legendary and it is difficult to divide fact from fiction, especially as he recorded many of his own exploits in “The Book of Five Rings”. This text was devoted to the strategy and the realities of battle but also chronicled many of Miyamoto’s duels from his own perspective.\n\nPerhaps his most famous adversaries were the men of the Yoshioka School. After defeating the school’s master, Yoshioka Seijuro, with a single blow, Musashi was challenged by Seijuro’s brother, Denshichiro. Musashi killed Denshichiro with his own sword. After these killings, the Yoshioka planned to ambush the upstart with over 100 men. Unfortunately for them, Musashi did not follow the plan, and he killed the last remaining member of the Yoshioka family and forced their men to retreat. Following this utter humiliation the famous sword school closed its doors forever. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Sword_Katana_Samurai \n\nKatana samurai are an elite heavy infantry unit. They form part of the main line in battle, charging forward to engage the enemy in close combat. The katana is a very effective melee weapon. Its incredibly sharp blade easily cuts through enemies, while the flat deflects enemy blows.\n\nA samurai goes into battle accepting death and fearing little, which gives him excellent morale. Accepting death and foolishly risking your life for no purpose are not the same thing, and katana samurai must be wary of threats from cavalry and missile troops, against which they have little defence.\n\nThe katana sword is the weapon most readily associated with the samurai. Its elegant, curved single blade is created from many folded layers of high carbon steel (that can take a sharp edge but is brittle), and low carbon steel (that is tough but relatively soft and prone to blunting). By combining both metals, the katana manages to be tough and retain a razor sharp edge.\n\nHistorically, the katana was made to be used as a two-handed sword, the sharp edge of the blade would cut into an enemy and the momentum of the samurai’s blow would carry it through their body, often killing in one deft movement. It was a sword used for cutting rather than thrusting. A shield was not necessary, as the sword could be used to parry and deflect an enemy’s strikes using the flat of the blade, without fear of it breaking. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Sword_Katana_Wako \n\nWako are men who have forsaken the code of bushido for a life of plunder and piracy. They have no qualms, though, about using samurai weapons, and these men carry the katana, the razor-sharp sword of the samurai. They can be part of a battle line and are fearsome warriors in melee, especially against spearmen. However, they are weaker against cavalry and missile units, and should stay out of range of enemy archers.\n\nHistorically, ‘wako’ was the name given to the Japanese pirates who raided the Chinese and Korean coasts. Parallels can be drawn between the sengoku daimyos and the pirate ‘sea lords’. Both sets of leaders took their chances in a power vacuum and seized large areas as their fiefdoms, ruling them through their own clan structures. The Murakami were one of the most powerful wako clans and would extort tolls from passing ships for ‘protection’. Later, the Murakami would ally with the Mori, in the process making the Mori a formidable naval power in their own right. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Sword_Nodachi_Samurai These samurai are armed with the no-dachi. These are extremely heavy, long swords that can only be wielded by the strongest and most skilled of men. These swords can do a lot of damage and the no-dachi samurai use them for devastating charges into infantry, where they can often break through defensive lines. Only very brave men charge into the enemy on foot, but no-dachi samurai are known for their high morale. They are shock troops and not particularly effective when defending, especially against cavalry and missile troops.\n\nHistorically, the no-dachi was a much longer and heavier sword than the more famous katana. It required considerable strength to lift and swing, and the sheer size of it stopped any use in confined spaces. Instead, it was used in open field battles or against mounted warriors. In peaceful times it could be worn to display status but, rather than being hung from the waist like a tachi or katana, this mighty sword was slung across the shoulder. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Sword_Samurai_Retainers \n\nSamurai retainers are elite expert swordsmen who remain behind to protect their master’s castle from enemy attacks while the daimyo is on campaign. The retainers go into battle accepting death and fearing little, which gives them excellent morale. Accepting death is not the same thing as foolishly throwing away your life, so samurai retainers must be wary of threats from cavalry and missile troops against which they have little defence.\n\nThe katana is the weapon most readily associated with all samurai. Its elegant, curved single blade is created from high carbon steel, which is sharp but brittle, and low carbon steel, which is tough and flexible but not able to hold an edge. By cunningly combining both metals, the katana manages to be tough whilst retaining its sharp edge. The katana was made to be used as a two-handed sword; the sharp edge of the blade would cut into an enemy and the momentum of a blow would carry it through the body, often killing in one deft movement. It was a sword used for cutting rather than thrusting, and doubled as a shield because the samurai could parry and deflect enemy attacks with the flat of the blade. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Inf_Sword_Wako_Raiders \n\nThese wako raiders are lightly armed and wear little armour, which contributes to their ability to move with stealth and remain hidden. Indeed, wako raiders can hide almost anywhere: an enemy may end up convinced that they can hide behind every rice stalk! They can also move without revealing their position, making them useful for tactical surprises. Best of all, for a commander, before the battle they can actually be positioned outside the army’s normal deployment area. That they also have a good close attack, and good morale makes them even more useful as a weapon. \n\nAs far as the Chinese were concerned, all the Japanese were pirates, or in league with pirates. It wasn’t surprising that the Chinese were angered and frustrated. The Shogunate refused to address the problem, and the local lords were cheerfully profiting from piracy. The Chinese banned trade with Japan, but to no effect. Even punitive attacks by the Chinese failed to solve the problem of piracy. The Japanese had no real wish to rein in their pirates, for how else would they get stolen Chinese goods so cheaply? True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Light_Ship_Bow_Ship \n\nThe ship’s purpose is to stay on the edges of a fleet, quickly moving to key points to provide fire wherever necessary. Its speed means it can avoid being boarded by soldiers from heavier, more powerful ships while harassing them with arrows. The crew of this vessel is not expected to launch boarding attacks, only soften up a target for other friendly ships. They also have the ability to fire flaming arrows for a short period of time, which are much more devastating than standard arrows. Ironically, the archers are also vulnerable to missile fire as the upper deck of the ship has no protection.\n\nDuring the Sengoku Jidai, ships were mostly made from wood, occasionally augmented by thick bamboo or iron plates. This made them inflammable, and it was quite common to set fire to a vessel prior to boarding it. Archers would use fire arrows, or bombs would be thrown, all in the interests of making life as difficult as possible for the defenders. However, boarding actions were the most important tactic of war at sea, and everything else was subordinated to them. This was just as well, as incendiary weapons lacked the power of cannons, which were hardly common. Japanese naval warfare never went the same way as European naval tactics, with ships becoming gun platforms and fighting at a distance for the most part. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Light_Ship_Fire_Bomb_Ship \n\nFire bombs are ceramic pots filled with gunpowder that are swung above the head before being released. When they explode, hopefully on impact, they burn enemies and spread flames in every direction. As even the heaviest of ships are largely of wooden construction, they are very vulnerable to fire. The fire bombs have a short range, so fire bomb ships need to get in close, attack, and then use their speed to escape before they are counter-attacked and boarded. Missile fire from other vessels can also be a threat, as there is no protection for the crew on the upper deck. These ships also have the ability to deploy naval mines outside of the deployment zone prior to the start of a battle. However, these mines are indiscriminate, and if blundered into, can be just as deadly to your own ships as well as the enemy! \n\nDuring the Sengoku Jidai, incendiary weapons such as fire arrows and bombs were used in naval battles. The bombs would be flung by hand using a rope or net sling or launched by catapults mounted on the deck. The Murakami clan managed to set fire to one of Oda Nobunaga’s ships in such a way at the first battle of Kizugawaguchi in 1576. One of the clan, Murakami Takeyoshi, was a pirate who had elevated himself into a lord through his naval expertise. His experience was so great that both the Oda and their enemies, the Mori, sought his aid in battle. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Light_Ship_Matchlock_Kobaya_Otomo \n\nA matchlock ship carries a small detachment of musket-armed soldiers, certainly not enough to fend off a boarding action, although the Otomo’s Christian fervour and familiarity with matchlocks enables them to shoot more accurately and reload at a faster rate than other troops of the same class. Further, because the upper deck has no cover, they are exposed to missile attacks. However, this lack of fighting manpower and protection also makes the ship very light and fast. The matchlock troops can fire at an enemy crew or at the side of an enemy ship in an attempt to hole it. If a heavy enemy vessel gets too close and a boarding attack looks likely, a matchlock ship can use speed to move out of trouble and continue its harassing attacks.\n\nComing to prominence during the Kamakura Shogunate following the Gempei War, the Otomo clan remained at the forefront of feudal politics for the next four hundred years. Alongside the Shimazu, the Otomo were one of the largest clans on Kyushu, and had early contacts with the Portuguese, soon establishing trade links. Their daimyo, Otomo Sorin, saw the benefits to the clan’s prosperity and wanted the emerging gun technology that European trade could bring. Following the arrival of the Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier in 1549, and his subsequent meeting with the daimyo, Otomo Sorin showed tolerance towards the Jesuit conversion of Japanese subjects to Catholicism, eventually converting himself in 1578. During the Sengoku Jidai, the Otomo fought against both the Shimazu and the Mori clans. They retained control of their lands into the Edo Period by playing a minor role during Tokugawa Ieyasu’s Sekigahara Campaign. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Light_Ship_Matchlock_Ship \n\nA matchlock ship carries a small detachment of musket-armed soldiers, certainly not enough to fend off a boarding action. Further, because the upper deck has no cover, they are exposed to missile attacks. However, this lack of fighting manpower and protection also makes the ship very light and fast. The matchlock troops can fire at an enemy crew or at the side of an enemy ship in an attempt to hole it. If a heavy enemy vessel gets too close and a boarding attack looks likely, a matchlock ship can use speed to move out of trouble and continue its harassing attacks.\n\nHistorically, Japanese naval tactics used missile attacks to thin out enemy numbers before a boarding action. Once the enemy were reduced, an attack would be launched and a battle fought hand-to-hand just as if everyone was ashore. The arrival of firearms in the Sengoku Jidai did not change these tactics. Instead, the arquebus simply replaced the bow. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Light_Ship_Siege_Tower_Ship These vessels are modified medium ships with a raised fighting platform in the middle of the deck, effectively making them floating siege towers. In theory, the siege tower bune moves close to an enemy ship where the crew is already fighting against boarders, and then rains death down upon them. The vessel is vulnerable to fire and cannon attacks, but it can use its speed to take evasive action when boarding attacks are made against it.\n\nIn 1590, Toyotomi Hideyoshi used tower bunes during his siege at Shimoda, a coastal fortress controlled by his rivals, the Hojo. Although it was unusual to lay siege to a castle from the sea, the attack used the same tactics as a land assault. The castle’s supplies were cut off, and Hideyoshi waited for starvation to force the Hojo to submit. Though Hideyoshi had 14,000 men, the 600 Hojo warriors held out for four months! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Medium_Ship_Medium_Bune \n\nMedium or “seki” bunes are likely to be the main element of any clan navy, thanks to their size and general “handiness”. They have reasonably strong hulls and carry enough crew to give them the ability to support bigger ships. They also retain enough speed and manoeuvrability to combat the lighter, faster ships. This puts them somewhere between the o ataka bune and kobaya in terms of their uses and deployment. Because they are not specialised, medium bunes will not be able to match speeds with lighter ships or the strength of heavy vessels, but they have versatility on their side.\n\nHistorically, seki bunes hulls resembled smaller versions of the o ataka bunes, with the addition of a pointed bow. They also lacked the o ataka’s deck house. Ataka bunes were extremely powerful but their size made them sluggish and unresponsive. The seki bunes were a response to this, and managed to combine speed with strength, making them flexible fleet units for any sea-going general. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Medium_Ship_Sengoku_Bune \n\nThe sengoku bune is distinguished from other Japanese ships by its sail. This sail is carried in addition to the oarsmen on board, and sailing with the wind allows it to chase down enemy ships. The sengoku bune has few crew compared to similar sized ships, so it is best used to attack smaller, weaker ships rather than those in its own weight category.\n\nHistorically, sengoku bunes were large junk-style ships used to carry rice and sake. In 1609, converted sengoku bunes were used in the Shimazu raid on the independent kingdom of Ryukyu. These were joined in the attack by ataka bunes, warships that resembled large floating castles. The combination together was an interesting attempt to advance the art of sea warfare. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Medium_Ship_Wako_Medium_Bune \n\nWako pirates are a constant threat to all. Their main targets are trade ships, but these medium bunes and their wako crews are capable of battle against warships as well. They have a reasonably strong hull and enough fighting men on board to overpower bigger ships, all the while retaining the manoeuvrability needed against lighter, faster vessels. Medium bunes are good all-rounders and are not the equal of specialised vessels, but they have versatility to spare!\n\nThe medium, or seki, bune was smaller than an ataka bune and larger than the kobaya. The design combined strength with speed. In appearance the hull resembled a smaller version of the ataka bune, but with the addition of a pointed bow. The seki bune lacked a deck house. The design was certainly good enough to be adopted by the wako, men who had an eye to the practical business of turning a profit on every voyage. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Placeholder PLACEHOLDER True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Sh_Cav_Bow_Cavalry_Hero \n\nMounted on thoroughbreds, these elite skilful sharpshooters are capable of dropping enemies with unerring precision at incredible range. Best used for swift attacks on enemy flanks, they need an open field to exploit their skills. Whilst high morale enables them to stand toe-to-toe in close combat with an enemy, they can be overwhelmed by numbers. \n\nThe introduction of the arquebus allowed armies to have adequate missile troops with little training. The bow needed time to master, but in the hands of a skilled samurai it remained a revered and potent weapon. The skills of a master mounted bowman went far beyond mere archery and horsemanship; his life and soul were dedicated to the moment of the arrow’s release. Repeated practice over long years meant that the arrow always flew true and found its target. The archer took another arrow, another breath, and chose another enemy for death. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Sh_Cav_Kat_Cavalry_Hero \n\nMasters of steed and blade, these elite cavalry can deliver a powerful charge or fight on foot to mercilessly cut through their foes. Their intervention can be decisive: apart from spear-armed men, few foes can resist their assault and even fewer can match them in melee. \n\nWhile bowstrings snap, spears shatter and matchlocks cannot fire in the rain, the katana is always ready. In the hands of a disciplined and highly-trained horseman, the blade can be brought to bear with a force that can shatter the will, and skulls, of any enemies. \n\nThe curved katana is well suited to cavalry use. It evolved from weapons used by the Emishi tribes of the late Nara and Heian periods. Used to cut down, it is far superior to any straight-bladed sword. Although usually regarded as a secondary weapon for cavalry troops, the katana was the soul of a samurai. This was epitomised at the battle of Kariwano, at the end of the Boshin War in 1868. The Shonai army were overwhelmed by the modern weaponry of their enemy and made a final heroic, if ultimately suicidal, charge towards their Imperial foes. At the end, every samurai drew his katana to die a good death. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Sh_Cav_Yari_Cavalry_Hero \n\nFew enemies can withstand the impact of a spear-tip in the hands of a skilled cavalryman. These skilled men are experts with the yari, and can almost pick which enemy eye will get the point during a charge. Despite their skill, they are best used to charge home and then disengage. In a prolonged fight, their skills with the spear are of less use, so should be used for shock attacks into the flank or rear of an enemy. \n\nThe yari was one of the traditional weapons of the samurai, predating the katana. Sojutsu, the mastery of the spear, allowed yari-armed cavalry to strike with perfect poise, power and precision. The momentum of a man and horse, concentrated into the razor-sharp tip or a yari, would impale and gut an enemy, regardless of his bravery. Even the blunt end of a spear could be used offensively, as archaeological evidence suggests that the spear pommel was used to inflict skull-crushing blows in combat. More often, though, it was the yari’s end, driven into chinks in an enemy’s armour, or into the face, that did the killing. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Sh_Inf_Matchlock_Hero \n\nThis hero and his entourage will give a good account of themselves if properly handled, and given a good field of fire. They can also defend themselves for a short time in melee. The matchlock’s rate of fire may be slow but this is of little comfort when it is being fired, with deadly accuracy, by a hero. The small number of men in this unit means that they can be overwhelmed by weight of numbers in close combat. Heroic status is also no protection against the chance flight of arrows or bullets: if this unit is left exposed to enemy fire it will suffer as ordinary men do. \n\nIndividual samurai carried firearms almost as soon as they became available from Portuguese traders. Guns from Europe were extremely expensive, and only the rich could possibly afford to carry one into battle. This meant that individual shooting and marksmanship had to be the order of the day. Smoothbore muskets are inherently inaccurate, but they are accurate enough to allow for properly aimed shots in the hands of experts, even if these don’t always strike home. Japanese craftsmen certainly added foresights to gun barrels before Europeans bothered, and this would not have been done if aimed fire was considered pointless. Serious killing by gunfire, however, had to wait until guns were cheap enough to be issued to large formations. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Sh_Inf_Naginata_Hero \n\nThe naginata is a weapon that favours the attack, like much samurai armament. Unlike a sword, however, it is equally useful against foot and horse. It can even be used as a rudimentary spear to ward off cavalry attacks. Despite his usefulness and aggressive qualities, a naginata hero and his followers should be handled carefully. They will die as readily as lesser men beneath a hail of arrows or bullets. Like all heroic forces, they can be swamped by sheer numbers of enemies, even lowly ashigaru, if they are unsupported. \n\nThere are arguments as to the exact origin of the naginata. The Japanese had a genius for adopting and improving Chinese ideas, so an early form of the “guan dao” glaive may well be the parent of the naginata. The guan dao is certainly several centuries older than the Japanese weapon, and the “hoko yari”, a spear issued to guards, was also often cited as a precursor to the true naginata. Regardless of the actual lineage, the curved, slicing blade on the end of a pole was independently developed around the world, and often adapted from a variety of agricultural implements. The billhook, glaive and many others are all blades on poles, and clearly weapons that owe much to basic farming tools. In the hands of an expert, all are deadly to footsoldiers and cavalry alike. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Sh_Inf_Naginata_Heroine \n\nBeauty and death can exist in deadly harmony. These fearless samurai women have outstanding morale. In melee, they can devastate sword-armed infantry but if properly handled, they can execute devastating flank attacks against almost anyone. Because their numbers are few, the heroine and her supporters can be quickly overwhelmed by numbers when facing large forces, and they have no especially heroic protection against missiles: arrows and bullets are no respecters of nobility and courage. \n\nThe naginata became a weapon associated with samurai women during the Gempei War period. In the hands of a skilled user a naginata can be a surprisingly graceful weapon, and terrifyingly deadly. Women still use the naginata in sporting competitions using the rules of atarashii naginata or “new naginata”, a recognised martial art. This is one of the gendai budo styles established after the Meiji Restoration in the late 19th Century to promote Japanese culture and keep alive traditional values at a time of great change. Although the new martial arts are often seen as sports, they are also serious ways to study life as well: they are not only about technique and competition. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Sh_Inf_Ninja_Hero \n\nThe true ninja is swifter than the wind and as silent as a mountain glade. Able to move about the battlefield unseen, they can appear from nowhere launch an assault on an enemy general and vanish without trace. Their skills are the product of a lifetime of intensive training, cunning and the clever use of misdirection. This is thanks in part to their blinding grenades that can be used to disorientate their enemy, leaving them free to use their throwing knives for the killing blow. \n\nThe use of subterfuge and disguises has long been associated with the ninja and is a theme often seen in the myths and legends of Japan. The tale of Yamato Takeru tells of his clever use of disguises to gain entry into an enemy stronghold. Dressed as a maid servant, he snuck into the palace of two brothers who had displeased his father, the Emperor Keiko, and murdered both in quick succession. As the second brother lay dying he named Yamato Takeru, “Brave one of the Yamato,” even though he was wearing a kimono at the time. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Sh_Inf_Nodachi_Hero \n\nThe no dachi is a rare and beautiful weapon. Due to the difficulty of its forging and use, few are made and carried into battle, so those who do use them are true masters of the sword. They also possess incredible bravery, as charging headlong into enemy infantry takes immense composure and a certain disregard for self-preservation. Best used as shock troops, they will suffer heavy losses if left in a defensive position. They are also weak against cavalry and missile troops as their large weapons offer little protection against such threats. \n\nTo wield the no dachi requires incredible strength, a skill often praised in Japanese mythology. The warrior Benkei, whose origins are steeped in legend, was described as a man of great strength and loyalty. However, it was his exploits on the Gojo Bridge in Kyoto that secured his place in legend. Benkei set himself up on the bridge and vowed to claim one thousand swords by challenging every man to cross the bridge. The thousandth man to cross was general Minamoto no Yoshitsune who defeated Benkei. Chastened by this defeat Benkei vowed to fight for Yoshitsune and continued to do so until his death at the Siege of Koromogawa. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Sh_Inf_Tetsubo_Hero \n\nOnly a truly fearsome warrior has the bravery and skill required to carry a tetsubo into battle. These large metal studded clubs are incredibly heavy and unwieldy, leaving their warrior open to quick attacks from faster foes and missile attacks. However, when these mighty clubs are brought to bear in melee combat they deal a devastating blow and no amount of armour will protect a victim from the bone-shattering impact! \n\nThe use of a tetsubo required immense upper body strength. It is hardly surprising that it was the weapon of choice for the fearsome oni, the vicious and powerful demons of Japanese myth. These incredibly strong mythical beasts gave rise to a number of Japanese sayings related to strength including, “like giving a kanabo to an oni” which means to give the advantage to one who already has it. A north-easterly direction is known as kimon in Japan or “the gate through which the oni passes.” It is viewed as the birth place of bad luck and evil spirits, and even now no Japanese railway station, for example, would have an entrance from that direction. During the spring festival of Setsubun families throw soybeans outside their homes to ward off the oni and bring in good luck for the coming year. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Trade_Ship_Red_Seal_Ship \n\nA red seal ship is built for “blue water” sailing, making it hardier than most trade vessels, which are restricted to coastal routes. It can carry large cargoes, travel long distances and therefore has more opportunities for profitable trading. Unfortunately, this also makes it a tempting target for others, such as the wako pirates. A red seal ship’s structural strength improves its chances of survival in such an attack, but it is still vulnerable.\n\nA ship in possession of a red-sealed patent was sanctioned by the Shogun himself, and allowed it to trade freely. The red seal permit system originated toward the end of the 16th century under Toyotomi Hideyoshi. It was an effort to combat Japanese piracy and also control foreign trade by sanctioning merchants and where they traded. Those chosen by Toyotomi Hideyoshi could travel overseas and were regarded as official ships under his personal protection. This not only warned off pirates, but also made it clear to foreigners that it was diplomatic to look after merchants! True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Trade_Ship_Trade_Ship \n\nAll samurai consider trade and the associated money-grubbing to be vulgar. It is, quite rightly, beneath them, even though merchants often end up rather wealthy! Trade ships are seen as a necessary evil, importing valuable weapons from overseas such as cannon and firelocks. Trade ships are unarmed vessels and should run away at the first sign of trouble: this wise tactic is their only defence! They are constantly threatened by enemy clans blockading supply lines, and by the wako pirates who infest the seas around Japan!\n\nHistorically, trade between Korea and Japan was usually hampered by piracy. The Japanese wako pirates would routinely raid Korean and Chinese coasts, while the Japanese authorities seemed powerless to stop them. China responded by declaring war on the pirates, ambushing them and burning their ships. The Chinese also attacked known pirate bases and beheaded those they captured. When Toyotomi Hideyoshi came into power he banned the owning of arms by all the peasantry, which greatly reduced the power of the wako. However, the same pirates who had just been suppressed were then recruited for their naval expertise: Hideyoshi needed them for his ill-fated invasion of Korea in 1592. True
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Trade_Ship_Wako_Trade_Ship \n\nThis is a trade ship in name only. In truth, it is used to close with unsuspecting merchants, allowing the crew to achieve a measure of surprise. Most merchants will be on guard against potential attacks, so the wako resort to such stratagems. Against large ships, however, they lack the firepower for battle, and the manoeuvrability to escape!\n\nHistorically, the wako plagued the Koreans and Chinese between the 13th and 16th century. There would be periods of inactivity, usually after a devastating attack on the pirates’ base had been a salutary lesson, but the wako would always be back. There was simply too much wealth to be stolen! In 1587, Toyotomi Hideyoshi decreed that peasants were not allowed to carry weapons, and in turn the wako found it harder to obtain arms. However, many were subsequently recruited by clans who needed their naval expertise. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Art_European_Cannons Very damaging against buildings.||Very long range.||Slow reload time and low accuracy.||Very weak if engaged in melee. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Art_Fire_Projecting_Mangonels Explosive shot very good against buildings.||Very long range.||Slow reload time and very low accuracy.||Very weak if engaged in melee. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Art_Fire_Rockets Fires large numbers of explosive rockets.||Shorter range than other siege weapons.||Shots hit over a very large area.||Very weak in melee. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Art_Hand_Mortars High arc of fire is good for attacking units behind walls.||Slow reload time and low accuracy.||Very weak if engaged in melee.||Vulnerable to cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin__Inf_Line_Republican_Infantry Good accuracy and reload rate.||Average in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Art_Armstrong_Guns Very long range and devastating explosive shells.||Good accuracy and average reload rate.||Weak in melee.||Average morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Art_Gatling_Guns Very fast rate of fire.||Average accuracy.||Weak in melee.||Average morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Art_Parrot_Guns Very long range and devastating explosive shells.||Good accuracy and slow reload rate.||Weak in melee.||Average morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Art_Wooden_Cannons Poor accuracy and slow reload rate.||Very low amount of ammunition.||Good damage against buildings.||Very weak in melee.||Very weak against cavalry.||Low morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Bow_Ki Fast and can fire on the move.||High accuracy and range.||Weak against massed foot missile units.||Weak in melee. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Carbine_Cavalry Good accuracy and fast reload rate.||Good in melee.||Weak against missile attacks and spear units.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Imperial_Guard_Cavalry Good accuracy and very fast reload rate.||Good in melee.||Weak against missile attacks and spear-armed units.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Revolver_Cavalry Average accuracy and very fast reload rate.||Short range.||Very fast moving.||Weak in melee.||Weak against missile attacks and spear units.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Cav_Missile_Samurai_Hero Fast and can fire on the move.||High accuracy and range.||Weak against massed foot missile units.||Average in melee.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Cav_Spear_Shogunate_Guard_Cavalry Good in melee.||Average melee defence.||Very good against cavalry.||Weak against missile attacks and spear-armed units.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Cav_Spear_Yari_Ki Average in melee.||Very good charge.||Weak melee defence.||Very good against cavalry.||Weak against missile attacks and spear-armed units.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Cav_Sword_Republican_Guard_Cav Very good in melee.||Good charge.||Weak against missile attacks and spear units.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Cav_Sword_Sabre_Cavalry Very good in melee.||Average charge.||Weak against missile attacks and spear units.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Gen_Bodyguard General provides morale bonus to nearby units.||Lots of powerful special abilities.||Short range.||Weak in melee.||Weak against missile attacks and spear units.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Gen_Hatamoto General provides morale bonus to nearby units.||Many powerful special abilities.||Very good in melee.||Weak against missile attacks and spear units.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Gun_Boat_Chiyodagata Can support bigger ships||Fast, good manoeuvring||Small crew||Low morale||Weak against artillery True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Imperial_Guard Very good accuracy and reload rate.||Good in melee.||Presence encourages nearby friendly units.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Infanterie_de_marine Very good accuracy and reload rate.||Good in melee.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Kihetai Good accuracy and reload rate.||Average in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Presence encourages nearby friendly units.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Republican_Guard_Infantry Very good accuracy and reload rate.||Good in melee.||Presence encourages nearby friendly units.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Royal_Marines Very good accuracy and reload rate.||Good in melee.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Elite_Shogunate_Guard_Infantry Very good accuracy and reload rate.||Good in melee.||Presence encourages nearby friendly units.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Elite_United_States_Marines Very good accuracy and reload rate.||Good in melee.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Light_Sharpshooters Good accuracy but average reload rate.||Long range.||Weak in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Light_Tosa_Riflemen Very good accuracy and reload rate.||Long range.||Weak in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Light_Yugekitai Can deploy outside main deployment area.||Very good accuracy and reload rate.||Long range.||Weak in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale.||Can move and fire whilst hidden. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Line_Azure_Dragon_Force Good accuracy and reload rate.||Average in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Line_Black_Bear_Infantry Good accuracy and reload rate.||Average in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Line_Black_Tortoise_Force Good accuracy and reload rate.||Weak in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Line_Imperial_Infantry Good accuracy and reload rate.||Average in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Line_Infantry Average accuracy and reload rate.||Average in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Line_Red_Bear_Infantry Good accuracy and reload rate.||Average in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Line_Shinsengumi Average accuracy and reload rate.||Good in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Line_Shogunate_Infantry Good accuracy and reload rate.||Average in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Line_Vermillion_Bird_Force Good accuracy and reload rate.||Average in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Very good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Line_White_Bear_Infantry Good accuracy and reload rate.||Average in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Line_White_Tiger_Force Average accuracy and reload rate.||Weak in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Average morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Militia_Levy_Infantry Poor accuracy and slow reload rate.||Weak in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Average morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Missile_Bow_Kachi Good range and accuracy but low damage.||Weak in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Weak at range against rifles.||Average morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Kachi Average accuracy and slow reload rate.||Weak in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Weak against rifles.||Average morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Spear_Kyoto_Police Average in melee.||Good charge.||Good against cavalry.||Weak against missile attacks.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Spear_Spear_Levy Very good against cavalry.||Vulnerable to missiles.||Weak in melee against sword-armed units.||Low morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Spear_Yari_Kachi Average in melee.||Very good against cavalry.||Good melee defence.||Weak against missile attacks and sword-armed units.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Special_Kisho_Ninjas Can hide anywhere.||Can move hidden.||Very good in melee.||Good but short-ranged melee attack.||Good morale.||Weak against cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Sword_Katana_Kachi Very good in melee.||Weak against cavalry.||Weak against missile attacks.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Inf_Sword_Shogitai Very good in melee.||Weak against missile attacks.||Weak against cavalry.||Good morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Ship_HMS_Warrior Very large, medium-speed vessel||Very large crew||Good range and accuracy||Excellent morale||Excellent firepower||Strongest armour available True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Ship_Kaiten Medium-sized, slow-moving vessel||Large crew||Good range and accuracy||Good morale||Large number of guns True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Ship_Kaiyo_Maru Large, slow moving vessel||Large crew||Excellent range and accuracy||Excellent morale||Strongest non-ironclad vessel available||Excellent firepower True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Ship_Kanko_Maru Medium-sized, slow-moving vessel||Large crew, armed with rifles||Good range and accuracy||Good morale||Small number of guns True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Ship_Kanrin_Maru Screw driven||Medium-sized, medium-speed vessel||Crew armed with rifles||Good range and accuracy||Good morale||Large number of guns True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Ship_Kasuga Medium-sized, fast-moving vessel||Large crew||Good range and accuracy||Good morale||Large number of guns True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Ship_Kotetsu Small, medium-speed vessel||Equipped with the best gun available||Small crew||Excellent range and accuracy||Excellent morale True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Ship_LOcean Medium-speed ironclad vessel||Large crew||Excellent range and accuracy||Excellent morale||Large number of guns True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Ship_USS_Roanoke Medium-speed vessel||Large crew||Very good range and accuracy||Strong armour||Excellent morale True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Boshin_Torpedo_Boat_Chiyodagata Excellent at supporting bigger ships||Equipped with torpedo tubes||Fast, good manoeuvring||Very strong against slow ships||Good morale||Small crew||Weak against artillery True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Cannon_Ship_Cannon_Bune Devastating at range.||Fast moving ship.||Cannot be boarded.||Late game but no match for European ships. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Cav_Missile_Bow_Cavalry Fast and can fire on the move.||High accuracy and range.||Weak against massed foot missile units.||Weak in melee. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Cav_Missile_Donderbuss_Cavalry Very high missile damage.||Good accuracy but slow reload rate.||Average in melee.||Vulnerable to massed foot missile units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Cav_Missile_Matchlock_Mounted_Gunner Very high missile damage.||Good accuracy but slow reload rate.||Average in melee.||Vulnerable to massed foot missile units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Cav_Spear_Fire_Cavalry Good against cavalry.||Good against infantry.||Higher than average speed.||Weak against spears and naginata.||Vulnerable to matchlocks. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Cav_Spear_Great_Guard Excellent on the charge and strong morale.||Very good against other cavalry.||Weak against yari and naginata units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Cav_Spear_Light_Cavalry Fast and can spot hidden units at longer range than other units.||Strong charge.||Weakest cavalry against infantry.||Very weak against yari and naginata units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Cav_Spear_Naginata_Warrior_Monks Very good defensive cavalry but slow.||Very high morale.||Good against cavalry and infantry in melee.||Vulnerable to yari, naginata and missile units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Cav_Spear_Yari_Cavalry Fast and very good charge.||Good against other cavalry.||Weak in prolonged melee.||Vulnerable to yari and naginata units in melee. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Cav_Sword_Katana_Cavalry Very good in melee.||Slower than other cavalry.||Vulnerable against yari and naginata infantry.||Vulnerable to matchlocks. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Galleon_Black_Ship Strongest ship.||Extremely devastating at range.||Fast and manoeuvrable.||Strong hull. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Galleon_Nanban_Trade_Ship Very devastating at range.||Very large crew.||Decent speed and manoeuvrability.||Strong hull. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Gen_Taisho Powerful special abilities.||General provides big morale bonus to nearby units.||Vulnerable in melee unless upgraded to focus on that. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Cav_Naginata_Cav Very good against cavalry.||Very strong in melee.||Small unit size.||Vulnerable to naginata-armed infantry and massed archers. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Cav_Onna_Bushi_Heroine Good with bow.||Excellent in melee.||Excellent against cavalry.||Very small unit size.||Vulnerable to naginata-armed infantry and massed archers. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Cav_Samurai_Cavalry Very good accuracy and reload rate.||Very good in melee.||Very good morale.||Vulnerable to naginata armed infantry and massed archers. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Cav_Samurai_Hero Excellent accuracy and reload rate.||Strong in melee.||Very small unit size.||Vulnerable to naginata-armed infantry and massed archers. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Gen_Bodyguard Very good accuracy and reload rate.||Very good in melee.||Very good morale.||Vulnerable to naginata armed infantry and massed archers. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Heavy_Ship_Heavy_Ship_Attendants Large-sized, average speed vessel.||Crew armed with bows and swords.||Very high morale.||Good range and accuracy.||Very strong in boarding battles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Heavy_Ship_Heavy_Ship_Samurai Large-sized, average speed vessel.||Crew armed with bows and swords.||Excellent morale.||Excellent in ranged combat.||Excellent in boarding battles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Inf_Bow_Attendants Average accuracy and reload rate.||Good morale.||Weak in melee.||Vulnerable to cavalry.||Weak against samurai infantry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Inf_Bow_Levy Low accuracy and reload rate.||Low morale.||Large unit size.||Vulnerable to cavalry.||Weak against higher quality troops. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Inf_Bow_Warrior_Monks Good accuracy and reload rate.||Very good morale.||Vulnerable to cavalry and archers. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Inf_Fire_Bomb_Throwers Short range but high damage bombs.||Small unit size.||Very weak in melee.||Vulnerable to archers and cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Inf_Naginata_Attendants Good against infantry and cavalry.||Good morale.||Large unit size.||Weak against samurai infantry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Inf_Naginata_Levy Fairly good against infantry and cavalry.||Low morale.||Large unit size.||Weak against higher quality troops. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Inf_Naginata_Warrior_Monk_Hero Excellent versatile infantry.||Almost unbreakable morale.||Small unit size leaves them vulnerable to being swamped by massed melee units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Inf_Naginata_Warrior_Monks Versatile infantry, good against cavalry and other infantry.||Weak armour makes them vulnerable to arrows.||Not as strong as more specialised anti-infantry and anti-cavalry units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Inf_Onna_Bushi Good against infantry and cavalry.||Very good in melee.||Very good morale.||Vulnerable to mass levy troops. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Inf_Samurai_Infantry Very good accuracy and reload rate.||Very good in melee.||Very good morale.||Vulnerable to cavalry and massed levy troops. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Inf_Sword_Attendants Good in melee.||Very good charge.||Good morale.||Vulnerable to cavalry and archers. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Inf_Tetsubo_Monk_Hero Excellent in melee.||Excellent morale.||Very small unit size.||Vulnerable to missiles and to massed enemy units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Light_Ship_Light_Ship_Attendants Small, fast-moving vessel.||Crew armed with bows and swords.||High morale.||Good range and accuracy.||Weak in boarding battles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Light_Ship_Light_Ship_Pirate Small, fast-moving vessel.||Crew armed with bows and swords.||Low morale.||Poor range and accuracy.||Very weak in boarding battles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Light_Ship_Light_Ship_Samurai Small, fast-moving vessel.||Crew armed with bows and swords.||Excellent in ranged combat.||Strong in boarding battles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Medium_Ship_Fire_Bomb_Medium_Ship Medium-sized, average speed vessel.||Devastating short-range firebombs.||High morale.||Weak in ranged combat.||Weak in boarding battles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Medium_Ship_Medium_Ship_Attendants Medium-sized, average speed vessel.||Crew armed with bows and swords.||High morale.||Good range and accuracy.||Strong in boarding battles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Medium_Ship_Medium_Ship_Pirate Medium-sized, average speed vessel.||Crew armed with bows and swords.||Low morale.||Poor range and accuracy.||Strong in boarding battles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Medium_Ship_Medium_Ship_Samurai Medium-sized, average speed vessel.||Crew armed with bows and swords.||Very high morale.||Excellent in ranged combat.||Very strong in boarding battles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Genpei_Trade_Ship_Trade_Ship Small, average speed vessel.||Low quality crew with low morale.||Weak in ranged combat.||Weak in boarding battles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Heavy_Ship_Heavy_Bune Large crew, in particular melee troops.||Big and relatively strong.||Slow and not very manoeuvrable.||Vulnerable to cannon fire. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Heavy_Ship_Nihon_Maru Encourages nearby friendly units.||Very large crew, in particular melee troops.||Slow and not very manoeuvrable.||Vulnerable to cannon fire. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Heavy_Ship_O_Ataka_Bune Very large number of crew, in particular melee soldiers.||Strong hull.||Slow and not very manoeuvrable.||Vulnerable to cannon fire. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Heavy_Naginata_Marathon_Monks Fast moving and fatigue resistant.||Good against infantry and cavalry.||Very high melee defence.||Vulnerable to katana infantry and missiles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Heavy_Naginata_Samurai Versatile infantry, good against cavalry and other infantry.||Excellent armour makes them very resistant to arrows.||Weak against matchlocks.||Not as strong as more specialised anti-infantry and anti-cavalry units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Heavy_Naginata_Warrior_Monk_Hero Excellent versatile infantry.||Almost unbreakable morale.||Very vulnerable to matchlocks.||Small unit size leaves them vulnerable to being swamped by massed melee units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Heavy_Naginata_Warrior_Monks Versatile infantry, good against cavalry and other infantry.||Weak armour makes them vulnerable to arrows.||Weak against matchlocks.||Not as strong as more specialised anti-infantry and anti-cavalry units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Heavy_Onna_Bushi Versatile infantry, good against cavalry and other infantry.||Weak against matchlocks.||Not as strong as more specialised anti-infantry and anti-cavalry units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Heavy_Warrior_Nuns Versatile infantry, good against cavalry and other infantry.||Weak against matchlocks.||Not as strong as more specialised anti-infantry and anti-cavalry units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Bow_Ashigaru Long range and short reload time.||Low accuracy and morale.||Very weak in melee.||Very vulnerable to cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Bow_Bandits Can shoot whilst hidden.||Can hide almost anywhere.||Can walk whilst hidden.||Weak in melee.||Vulnerable to cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Bow_Hero Extremely long range and very fast reload time.||Very accurate.||Excellent morale.||Weak against cavalry and can be swamped by massed melee units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Bow_Samurai Long range and short reload time.||High accuracy and morale.||Weak in melee.||Vulnerable to cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Bow_Wako . True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Bow_Warrior_Monks Very long range and fast reload time.||Very accurate.||Very good morale.||Weak against cavalry and in melee. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Daikyu_Samurai Very long range.||Very accurate and greater damage.||Slow reload speed.||Vulnerable to cavalry.||Weak melee attack. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Heavy_Gunners Very large muskets can heavily damage units and buildings.||Small unit size leaves them vulnerable in melee.||Very vulnerable to cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Ashigaru Good range but shorter than bow units.||Devastating damage.||Low accuracy, reload rate and morale.||Very vulnerable to cavalry and in melee. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Ashigaru_Otomo Good range but shorter than bow units.||Devastating damage.||Low accuracy, reload rate and morale.||Very vulnerable to cavalry and in melee. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Samurai Good range but shorter than bow units.||Devastating damage.||Average accuracy, reload rate and morale.||Vulnerable to cavalry but fairly good in melee against infantry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Samurai_Otomo Good range but shorter than bow units.||Devastating damage.||Average accuracy, reload rate and morale.||Vulnerable to cavalry but fairly good in melee against infantry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Matchlock_Warrior_Monks Good range but shorter than bow units.||Devastating damage.||High accuracy, reload rate and morale.||Vulnerable to cavalry and in melee. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Missile_Portuguese_Tercos Good range but shorter than bow units.||Devastating damage.||Good accuracy, reload rate and morale.||Good in melee.||Vulnerable to cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Spear_Bulletproof_Samurai Bulletproof armour makes them very resilient against matchlocks.||Heavier armour makes them slow.||Very high armour and melee defence.||Very good vs cavalry.||Average melee attack. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Spear_Extra_Long_Yari_Ashigaru Extended spear makes them excellent against cavalry.||Good defensive unit.||Vulnerable to missiles and sword infantry.|| Higher than average ashigaru morale. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Spear_Yari_Ashigaru Very good against cavalry.||Useful defensive unit.||Weak in melee against samurai infantry.||Vulnerable to missiles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Spear_Yari_Hero Excellent against cavalry.||Very good in melee.||Excellent morale.||Vulnerable to matchlocks and to being swamped by massed melee units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Spear_Yari_Samurai Very good against cavalry.||Good defensive unit.||Good in melee but weak against katana and no-dachi. Samurai.||Vulnerable to matchlocks. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Special_Fire_Bomb_Throwers Devastating but short range attack.||Very vulnerable in melee.||Very vulnerable to missiles.||Vulnerable to cavalry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Special_Kisho_Ninjas Excellent at hiding.||Can climb walls very fast.||Devastating range attack but very limited ammunition. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Sword_Katana_Ashigaru Good in melee.||Average morale.||Vulnerable to cavalry.||Vulnerable to missiles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Sword_Katana_Hero Excellent in melee.||Excellent morale.||Vulnerable to cavalry.||Vulnerable to matchlocks. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Sword_Katana_Samurai Very good in melee.||High morale.||Vulnerable to cavalry.||Vulnerable to missiles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Sword_Katana_Wako . True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Sword_Nodachi_Samurai Devastating charge.||Good morale.||Weak in prolonged melee.||Very vulnerable to cavalry and missiles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Sword_Samurai_Retainers Very good in melee.||High morale.||Vulnerable to cavalry.||Vulnerable to missiles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Inf_Sword_Wako_Raiders Can deploy outside the deployment zone.||Good melee attack and morale.||Weak melee defence and armour.||Vulnerable to cavalry and missiles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Light_Ship_Bow_Ship Fast moving.||Small crew who are mostly missile troops.||Vulnerable if boarded.||Crew very exposed to missiles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Light_Ship_Fire_Bomb_Ship Fast moving.||Crews exploding missiles cause fires but short range.||Vulnerable if boarded.||Crew very exposed to missiles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Light_Ship_Matchlock_Kobaya_Otomo Fast moving.||Matchlocks deadly against crew and can also damage hull.||Vulnerable if boarded.||Crew very exposed to missiles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Light_Ship_Matchlock_Ship Fast moving.||Matchlocks deadly against crew and can also damage hull.||Vulnerable if boarded.||Crew very exposed to missiles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Light_Ship_Siege_Tower_Ship High tower allows crew to fire down onto enemy decks.||Good all-round ship.||Vulnerable if boarded by bigger ships.||Vulnerable to cannon fire. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Medium_Ship_Medium_Bune Average hull, manoeuvrability and speed.||Large crew.||Good all-round ship.||Vulnerable to cannon ships. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Medium_Ship_Sengoku_Bune Sails make it faster than other ships.||Large crew for boarding smaller ships.||Vulnerable to cannon ships. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Medium_Ship_Wako_Medium_Bune Average hull, manoeuvrability and speed.||Large crew.||Good all-round ship.||Vulnerable to cannon ships. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Placeholder . True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Sh_Cav_Bow_Cavalry_Hero Fast and can fire on the move. ||Excellent accuracy and range. ||Excellent morale. ||Weak against massed foot missile units. ||Average in melee. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Sh_Cav_Kat_Cavalry_Hero Excellent in melee. ||Slower than other cavalry. ||Excellent morale. ||Vulnerable to yari and naginata infantry. ||Vulnerable to matchlocks. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Sh_Cav_Yari_Cavalry_Hero Fast and very good charge. ||Excellent against other cavalry. ||Excellent morale. ||Vulnerable to yari and naginata units in melee. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Sh_Inf_Matchlock_Hero Good range but shorter than bow units. ||Devastating damage. ||Very good accuracy and reload skill. ||Excellent morale. ||Vulnerable to cavalry but good in melee against infantry. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Sh_Inf_Naginata_Hero Versatile infantry, very good against cavalry and other infantry. ||Excellent armour makes them highly resistant to arrows. ||Excellent morale. ||Weak against matchlocks. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Sh_Inf_Naginata_Heroine Versatile infantry, very good against cavalry and other infantry. ||Excellent morale. ||Weak against matchlocks. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Sh_Inf_Ninja_Hero Excellent at hiding. ||Can climb walls very fast. ||Devastating ranged attack but very limited ammunition. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Sh_Inf_Nodachi_Hero Devastating charge. ||Excellent morale. ||Average in prolonged melee. ||Vulnerable to cavalry and missiles. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Sh_Inf_Tetsubo_Hero Excellent in melee. ||Excellent morale. ||Vulnerable to missiles and massed enemy units. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Trade_Ship_Red_Seal_Ship Strongest trade ship.||Very vulnerable in combat if boarded. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Trade_Ship_Trade_Ship Not very manoeuvrable.||Very small crew so very vulnerable if boarded. True
unit_description_texts_strengths_and_weaknesses_Trade_Ship_Wako_Trade_Ship Not very manoeuvrable.||Very small crew so very vulnerable if boarded. True