building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Archery_1_Archery_Dojo_Description \n\nThe ability to shoot accurately should be prized in all archers, but it requires training and dedication to achieve. An archery range allows basic archery to be taught, and bow-armed units to be recruited. It does not, however, teach the advanced skills of archery: it is sufficient here to hit the target and do so in the proper manner. Combat will teach men how to keep firing when under threat!\n\nThe bow was not solely used for war. Recreational archery and hunting played an important part in the art. The bow itself was a beautiful and complicated piece of equipment, with an unusual asymmetric shape: the grip was well below the mid-point. This unusual design came about because horse archery was the first skill of all samurai: a bow with the grip in the middle would have been completely unmanageable on horseback and become entangled in the saddle furniture. The short lower section meant it could be swung over the horse’s neck and back quickly. The bow itself was a composite, made of bamboo, wood and leather and was often much taller than the user. The design was extremely strong, and it was not uncommon for bow strings to snap under the strain of being fired. Archers would carry at least one spare string at all times for such emergencies. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Archery_2_Foot_Archery_Description \n\nThis range allows the training and recruitment of more advanced and skilful bow-armed units. In times of warfare the single archer must use his strength in company. Knowing how to use a bow requires refinement if it is to be used as an effective weapon of war. There are the extra skills of releasing volleys and reloading at speed as part of a group to learn and, hopefully, master.\n\nAs warfare grew in scale and ferocity, it was no longer enough for individual samurai to fight singly and in search of personal glory and honour. Larger, and cheaper, forces were needed too. Although the bow had been a traditional samurai weapon, and jealously guarded as such, it became sensible to train common ashigaru to use it effectively. They would fire massive volleys at the enemy, rather than try to pick off targets. Arrow bearers would accompany them into battle to carry the huge numbers of arrows required by these tactics. It was also their job, as explained in the “Zohyo Monogatari” written in 1649, to pick up enemy arrows and make sure they were used again! Even after the introduction and use of the arquebus by ashigaru, archers remained an important component of Japanese armies because they could unleash more destruction in a given time than the same number of gunners. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Archery_3_Bow_Master_Dojo_Description \n\nAll archers trained at a master dojo have a high level of expertise thanks to their superb teachers. A true master is always willing to share his understanding with his pupils, as their skills add to his honour and reputation. When men learn from the best, they cannot help but reach levels of skill that they might have thought impossible. \n\nThe bow, or yumi, required a great deal of care if it was to work properly and reliably on the battlefield. Indeed, a yumi was considered to have part of its maker within it, and was therefore worthy of respect. Ideally, according to the masters, a bowman should treat his bow with the same kind of care as he would treat himself: it should not be left in the cold, or wet, or excessive heat. A lack of care weakened and warped the weapon, thanks mostly to its composite construction from many different materials. The different elements needed to work in harmony, not against each other. A bow was also under tremendous tension when in use; unstrung, it would actually curve the other way! It was not considered a bad thing to leave a bow relaxed in such a fashion, but it was extremely bad form to use or even touch another man’s bow without his permission. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Archery_4_Legendary_Dojo_Description \n\nA master will always train the finest students to a pitch little short of perfection. Here, kyudo, the art of the bow, has been brought to a point where the seemingly impossible is attainable. This famous school allows the training and recruitment of elite archer units, including monks and hero units. Lesser units have their experience increased as a result of the school’s training. \n\nJapanese history often shades into legend where feats of arms are concerned. The famous archer Minamoto Tametomo is credited with sinking a ship using a single arrow, and it was reputed that his bow arm was significantly longer than the other as a result of his constant practice. Unfortunately, he came to a tragic end: he was trapped and captured by the Taira clan, who cut the tendons in his arm so that he could no longer hold a bow. Unable to fight on, or ever use his beloved bow again, Tametomo committed suicide. Some think that his death may be the first recorded example of suicide by seppuku. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Buddhist_1_Temple_Description \n\nConstruction of a temple enables the training of monks. These Buddhist agents can spread the faith, or comfort and inspire believers; they can also spread revolt and despair among enemies. The temple itself is a place of solitude and contemplation, the perfect place to consider the world and a man’s place in it. \n\nEveryone turns to the gods in their hour of need. In the sixth century, when Prince Shotoku of the Soga needed help to banish anti-Buddhist elements from Japan, he called on the fearsome Bishamon to aid him in his efforts. Originally the protector of the north, Bishamon became the protector of the law who guarded people from illness and demons. He was also worshipped as a war god, and was one of the Shichi Fukujin, the seven deities of happiness and good luck. He normally appeared as a blue-faced warrior with a spear and a pagoda. These items represented his dual personality, half warrior, half monk, but always a protector of the faithful. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Buddhist_2_Monastery_Description \n\nThe construction of a monastery is a tangible commitment to Buddhism, and it increases the happiness of all Buddhists in a province, although Christians will feel some resentment. The monastery also helps to convert non-Buddhists to the faith. As might be expected, a monastery is a place of quiet contemplation, removed from the worries of daily life. The monks are free to reach a better understanding of Buddha and his teachings. \n\nIn the 8th century, Buddhist monasteries were subject to significant interference from the Japanese government. Regulations controlled all aspects of monastic life, and religious leaders found themselves acting as bureaucrats rather than contemplating their own spiritual development. Driven from the monasteries to escape such interference, the monks went out in the country and took the teachings of Buddha to the population as a whole. It was not long before new monasteries, free from government control, were founded. The introduction of Zen in the 12th century saw an upsurge in those seeking to retire from the world and become monks but, as Pure Land Buddhism was promulgated, monasteries went into decline. Pure Land Buddhism reduced the importance of meditation, making it less vital to withdraw from the world. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Buddhist_3_Temple_Complex_Description \n\nThe beautiful gardens and tranquil surroundings of a temple complex bring peace and harmony to all who dwell there. No one in the province can fail to be moved by the spirituality of the place. Each building in the complex is carefully constructed to meet the religious needs of its occupants. In turn, this helps to increase the happiness of all Buddhists in the province and allows the recruitment of new units.\n\nTemples played an important role in Japan, as many great advances happened within their walls and many great people sheltered in them, away from the dangers and troubles of daily life. Some great men chose temples as their final resting places: the remains of Oda Nobunaga, the unifier of Japan, rest at Daitokuji, in the Murasakino section of Kyoto. A little earlier, this temple had been home to Sen no Rikyu (1522-1591), the man who is credited with the development of the tea ceremony. He built tearooms and gardens within Daitokuji to continue the cultural development of the temple, and encouraged his brothers to devote themselves to mastery of the tea ceremony. It came to embody the key principles of Zen, and became popular with the mighty shoguns of Japan. A man who could perform the tea ceremony was a formidable individual indeed. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Buddhist_4_Legendary_Temple_Description \n\nThis awesome temple increases the happiness of all Buddhists in a province. It also increases the rate at which converts flock to the faith. The monks of this complex are especially blessed and worthy, and demonstrate considerable expertise. The whole is a magnificent act of faith, given solid form.\n\nMount Koya, in Kii province, is home to a monastic complex that even the most vicious of daimyo feared to desecrate. Toyotomi Hideyoshi came close to destroying the temples when the monks chose to support Tokugawa Ieyasu, his great rival, but even he feared the power of the place. When he visited, he was cautious enough to cross the third bridge leading to Kobo Daishi’s tomb during the night before his official visit. Legend has it that no man with morals that Kobo Daishi would find unacceptable could cross the bridge and live. Hideyoshi’s caution paid off, and he was not struck dead. On the following day, Toyotomi Hideyoshi repeated his crossing, now certain that he would survive in public as well. Perhaps he had reason to worry: the tomb of Akechi Mitsuhide, the usurper who rebelled against Oda Nobunaga, on Mount Koya was struck by lightning, perhaps as a warning to others to live and die in a moral and honourable way! True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Buff_1_Encampment_Description \n\nAll warriors need somewhere to be gathered during recruitment, and somewhere to live whilst they are being trained. An encampment can have the air of a permanent military town, with bustle and apparent confusion all around. It does, however, make it easier and cheaper to recruit new units and organise regular drafts of replacements for existing units.\n\nEncampments had to be well organised, otherwise so many people in close proximity to each other would not stay healthy for long. The discipline of camp life had a secondary benefit - it was always wise for rulers to keep their fighting men separate from troublesome civilians. Apart from anything else, civilians have at least one awkward idea: they like to make a profit from bored soldiers through drink, women and gambling. Most soldiers are entirely happy to go along with these schemes, but discipline can suffer as a result. During the Sengoku Jidai, the number of ashigaru in all armies grew (no clan dared be left behind with a numerically small army) but recruiting commoners meant an inevitable departure from the high disciplinary standards of the samurai, with their code of bushido. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Buff_2_Armoury_Description \n\nThis store of arms and armour is an important investment by a clan. By purchasing arms and armour in large quantities, the clan’s warmasters have leverage with their suppliers. Because they are spending a lot of money they can insist on good quality items, and not just take anything and everything that is produced. An armoury, therefore, improves the armour rating of any unit recruited in the province. \n\nIt was not unusual for ashigaru to take weapons from the dead after a battle. All kinds of weaponry would end up in use by commoners, including some rather excellent blades that had once belonged to samurai families. However, during the Sengoku Jidai it became obvious that such informal arrangements were not enough when thousands of ashigaru troops had to be equipped. The various clans took pains to issue standardised arms and armour to their troops, for both protection and recognition purposes. Armour was usually painted or stained in clan colours, and prominently displayed the clan mon, or heraldic symbol, on the breastplate. Standardised equipment was only standard to the issuing clan: each clan had its own preferences over such matters as spear length, and even helmet shape! The enormously tall Date clan gold dress helmets were, perhaps, the most extreme items issued. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Buff_2_Barracks_Description \n\nA permanent barracks can give soldiers a home throughout the year, including living space, training areas and all the stores required for their equipment and movables. By keeping warriors in barracks, it is easier to instil discipline and solidarity with the group. They can be kept away from the distractions of the civilian world. A barracks, therefore, makes it much easier to organise recruiting efforts, keep the recruits in order, and either assign them to new units or send them to an army as replacements for the dead. \n\nAll armies across the world have always needed to keep their soldiers physically separate from the general population: it stops them running away before battle! Life in barracks is also totally organised around the business of turning men into warriors, something which is not easy for the raw material to endure. However, quite often, the attractions of not labouring in a field, regular meals, a bed and a roof were enough to keep peasants in the ranks. Life in the ranks might be dangerous, but it was a good deal less arduous than working on a farm and, on balance, the dangers were relative. A peasant faced death by accident and starvation; a soldier at least had a chance to make his own fate. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Buff_2_Hunting_Lodge_Description \n\nHunting teaches men to fire accurately and quickly against swift-moving targets. To miss is to go hungry! Therefore, a hunting lodge improves the firing accuracy of missile-armed troops recruited in this province. \n\nArchery in Japan was not only about warfare but also about hunting, both for pleasure and for food. The stalking and shooting skills needed to bring down prey with the minimum amount of fuss were directly transferable to warfare, as a man who could put an arrow cleanly into a deer could do the same to another man.\n\nHunting and war also used exactly the same equipment. Despite their poetic names, the narrow willow-leaf, willow-leaf and dragon’s tongue were all lethally sharp arrow heads designed to kill the target by lacerating flesh and causing massive bleeding. Any animal, or man, for that matter, would soon bleed to death after being hit. On the other hand, archers used the blunt, turnip-shaped signal arrows against their targets when dog hunting. These made an eerie whistling sound as they flew. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Buff_2_Jiujutsu_Dojo_Description \n\nJujutsu is a collection of martial arts, involving both armed and unarmed techniques. Because there is little point in striking an armoured opponent with bare hands, jujutsu techniques often involve grappling and throwing an enemy. In particular, there is an emphasis on using an enemy’s weight and energy against him. A jujutsu expert almost appears to help his opponent miss an attack, and then fall over painfully, and often fatally. The jujutsu dojo therefore improves the close combat abilities of any units recruited in the province, as the troops receive training from the masters here.\n\nMartial arts have a long history in Japan, but during the Sengoku Jidai the ability to fight with whatever was to hand could be the difference between life and death. Jujutsu at this time was not a purely unarmed form of combat. Indeed, if a short weapon was available, there was almost certainly a school of jujutsu that took advantage of it. The tanto, or knife, was often used, along with the manrikigusari, a weighted chain and a whole class of nasty objects called kakushi buki, or hidden weapons. This old-school jujutsu was not a sport, but a serious method of self-defence. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Buff_2_Proving_Grounds_Description \n\nIt is not enough for a warrior to know how to fight. The individual hunting personal glory is useless unless he contributes to the overall victory. He must learn to fight alongside his comrades as part of a unit, adding his strength to theirs. This involves drill, practice and faith in your brothers-in-arms. When all in a unit fight as one, their strength is magnified. These proving grounds will improve the charge bonus of any units recruited in the province. \n\nDrill has always been part of the soldiers’ lot. While it may seem pointless to a new recruit, the habit of instant obedience and being able to move to the right place within the unit without thinking are vital. Quick and co-ordinated action saves lives on the battlefield, at least among those who master the concept. Disciplined men stop being a rabble and become a single creature with many weapons. This becomes obvious on the charge: a single mass makes the shock of impact so much greater than a rag-tag gaggle of men arriving a few at a time. The disciplined mass will do more damage to the enemy, and individuals within the unit have a better chance of survival. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Castle_1_Fort_Description \n\nA fort is a basic defence against attackers, and can be garrisoned with troops to slow down and hinder any enemy incursions. Even the smallest castle can be difficult to take, and leaving the garrison unmolested and behind an advancing army is not always an option. A fort is also a symbol to the locals to remind them of their overlord’s power, and it can be used as a recruiting centre for some basic types of warrior.\n\nHistorically, the castles of the early Sengoku Jidai were a good deal less majestic than what is now considered to be the classical Japanese castle. The first castles were practical structures, made of wood and without multi-storeyed towers and stone walls. They were used for the defence and surveillance of the surrounding region, where the grand later buildings were also lordly mansions and seats of government, often with entire towns built around them. Early castles were located on rivers, at ports and other strategic points, and cunningly took full advantage of the natural landscape: mountainous positions were favoured, and nearby streams were diverted and dammed as moats. It was common for the defenders to not lurk behind their walls when attacked: the defenders would, more often than not, sally forth to meet the enemy rather than rely on the walls. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Castle_2_Stronghold_Description \n\nA stronghold looms above the people in their villages, a reminder from dawn to dusk of where their loyalties should lie, and to whom they must pay their taxes. It is a strong base for the local garrison troops, enabling them to control the area, and act as a barrier to any invader. The stronghold also acts as a centre for recruiting new troops to serve in the daimyo’s armies, and helps increase the clan’s fame.\n\nStone was introduced as a construction material for Japanese castles to provide protection against the elements and create sturdy foundations, always a problem in a nation so beset by earthquakes. Stone foundations also allowed the building to have more storeys. A large, sloped foundation platform was first carved out of the earth, which was then clad in stone to make a very strong bastion. These foundations could support impressive multi-storeyed towers, a sign of wealth and power. The bastions were also obstacles for any enemy attack, and were perfect for the defenders to rain arrows down on besiegers. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Castle_3_Fortress_Description \n\nTo properly defend and govern a province, a daimyo requires a strong base. That a fortress also inspires respect, even fear, among his people is no bad thing either. A fortress represses a province by its presence, helps the tax yield, and increases the fame of a clan, as rivals and enemies are awed by its construction. Any garrison can hold out against enemy attacks, and the castle acts as a centre for recruiting troops. \n\nThe development of castle design coincided with the rise in importance of the warrior classes in Japan. Warfare grew in scale, and the castle also grew so it could withstand prolonged sieges; the traditional wooden fortifications could no longer be expected to hold out against large armies with siege engines. The Hojo clan was responsible for the defences of Odowara, built in 1416. The castle survived two sieges before it finally fell in 1590 to Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Odowara was actually the central defensive position of a network of castles, as it was surrounded by smaller, satellite fortresses. Some of them, in turn, had their own ring of satellite forts. The entire system provided a layered defence that was extremely difficult and time-consuming for an enemy to reduce. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Castle_4_Castle_Description \n\nBuilding a castle is a sign of absolute ownership, as it provides a strong defence against enemy assaults and a centralized administration for the province. It is a clear sign of the builder’s prestige and wealth. With such a massive structure to defend them, the people will feel secure, but they will also understand that they must keep to their allotted stations in life. Tax income is also improved for the owning clan.\n\nThe Sengoku Jidai saw castles develop far beyond mere military strongholds and into being the central hubs for entire towns. The castle was where the daimyo lived, had his government, and encouraged the arts and culture. For the daimyo’s reputation, it was important to impress and intimidate guests in equal measure. The inner layout was designed to force the enemy along complex, exposed routes to the central citadel, so that they could be under fire every step of the way.\n\nThe cost of building and maintaining even one castle was almost crippling, so it became a measurable and public example of wealth, power and good taste. A great deal of prestige was gained by a daimyo’s patronage of the arts, and special pieces were commissioned often portraying beautiful landscapes or the clan’s victories, all designed to subtly display the clan’s virtues! True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Castle_5_Citadel_Description \n\nThis awe-inspiring building is intended to make all who see it marvel, or tremble, at its scale and the power it represents. It is a monument to the untrammelled wealth and military might of a daimyo and his clan. Cunningly built to confuse and confound attackers, it also serves to intimidate the local people who live, work, pay taxes and die in its shadow. It is of such magnificence that it also increases the prestige of its builders.\n\nTowards the end of the Sengoku Jidai, castles became even larger and more elaborate, as they evolved from military fortresses to cultural and economic centres for the surrounding provinces. The castle at Himeji was one such structure, built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1581 on top of Himeyama as a three-storey tower and then completely reworked by Ikeda Terumasa, his son-in-law. The hill position made it a formidable defensive site, and the inner citadel compound was a maze of courtyards and compounds to frustrate any enemy who gained entry. The rebuilt castle was all of that, but remains even today a spectacular and refined palace. It is still a popular tourist attraction. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Cavalry_1_Stables_Description \n\nAn army of peasants will fight as peasants. An army of foot soldiers will be ponderous. An army with horses will be fleet and deadly! Stables allow the training of light cavalry, who can quickly move across a battlefield to exploit a weakness or hold a line.\n\nMythology has it that the monkey protects horses and stables. This belief has its roots in the Chinese story “Journey to the West” about a monk and his companions, a monkey, a pig and a water spirit travelling to India. The monkey is making the trip as penance for disobedience to the Jade Emperor, who appointed him protector of horses to calm his desire for power. The monkey image is often found on stables, and a particular fine “hear no evil, see no evil, speak no evil” set of images can be seen at the Toshuga Shrine, built to honour Tokugawa Ieyasu. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Cavalry_2_Warhorse_Stables_Description \n\nWhere horses are available these stables allow the recruitment of a wide range of cavalry units. Battle tests the spirit of horses as surely as it tests their strength. Some are better suited to the clamour and din than others, and accept the training required of them. Warhorses must be able to ride headlong into an angry crowd, ignore flames, and keep going even when every natural instinct tells them to run.\n\nAs might be expected, cavalry furniture for horses in Japan developed in a somewhat different fashion compared to the rest of the world. Japanese saddles were traditionally made of wood, and carefully designed to give the rider a stable platform for archery. Such considerations made them unsuitable for use over long distances, or at speed, as they were heavy and uncomfortable. The reins and bridle, however, were light and made of silk. The strangest pieces of equipment, to outside eyes, were the umagutsu. These straw sandals were shoes for the horses, and very similar to human footwear. The umagutsu provided extra traction in wet conditions, and this alone was no small matter when battles were often fought across paddy fields and farmland. They also helped quieten the sound of the horses’ hooves. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Cavalry_3_Bajutsu_Master_Description \n\nCavalry units trained in this dojo will always be better and cheaper than units trained elsewhere. Bajutsu, or the skill of horse riding, is as much about training the man as the horse. A master is not just a horseman, he is also a warrior, scholar and teacher. He can read a battle, understand a horse and teach even the most unpromising student.\n\nThere were many schools of horsemanship in medieval Japan. Each had its own style and specialities, but all agreed that it was the bond between rider and horse that made a cavalry warrior. Students were expected to know everything about their mounts. They were also expected to stay in the saddle no matter what happened, be able to guide the animal with their knees, and fight with spear, bow and sword. Most schools favoured tractable animals for easy training, but on the Kanto plain high-spirited horses were preferred. These mounts took more breaking in, but were thought to make better battle steeds. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Cavalry_4_Legendary_Bajutsu_Dojo_Description \n\nRiders and horses trained at a legendary school have skills and expertise that far surpass those of any other cavalry. But to become a legend is not easy, to say the least. The masters here have moved beyond understanding their skill to a state where they embody their skill. They are at one with their horses, weapons and comrades-in-arms, and can perform acts of martial skill that are almost unrivalled.\n\nHorses, according to myth, are much hunted as prey by kappa, or water spirits, who try to pull them down to a watery death. Stories tell of kappas being caught and forced to promise never to attack horses again, usually with positive results in that the promises are kept. A horse-headed warrior, rather than a spirit, also serves the ruler of Hell, Emma-O. This guard, along with an ox-headed warrior, bring the dead before Emma-O and his magic mirror that reflects all the sins of a deceased man so that Emma-O may judge them fairly. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Christian_1_Chapel_Description \n\nThe humility of this structure belies its spiritual power. The missionaries that go forth from here are capable of converting the people to Christianity, and of spreading sedition among enemies. The building itself is more than a meeting place: like all churches, the design formally codifies the details of the faith. \n\nThe Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier brought Christianity to Japan in 1549. Despite language difficulties, he was modestly successful in communicating Christian ideas to his new flock. The Jesuits were a relatively new, vigorous order within the Catholic Church, formed to fight the Protestant ideas of Martin Luther. As “shock troops” of the Reformation, they had both a martial and scholarly air to them that was undoubtedly appealing to samurai sensibilities. However, Christianity faced much hostility because it did not honour ancestors. Indeed, missionaries told their Japanese audience that their ancestors were damned or, at best, virtuous pagans. Despite these problems, the Christian community probably numbered around 100,000 people by 1579. Francis Xavier would eventually be canonized as a saint for his efforts in the far-flung foreign lands. He is still a Catholic patron saint of missionaries. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Christian_2_Mission_Description \n\nA mission will aid the conversion of the Japanese to Christianity, but it will also add to the unease of Buddhists. It is a home and spiritual fortress for the missionaries who spread out across the land, bringing the Word to new flocks. \n\nThe Tokugawa shoguns considered Christianity to be a great threat to the good order of Japan. Centuries-old traditions, including in matters of faith, were considered to be a unifying force. In 1636 Dutch traders, the last Europeans in Japan, were confined to Dejima Island in Nagasaki harbour, effectively barring foreign influences, including foreign religions. The Jesuits had already gone home with the Portuguese, and the Dutch were more interested in profit than proselytising. Dejima was forbidden territory to the Japanese, save for the few allowed to live there and service Dutch needs. Japan remained largely closed to outsiders and their alien ideas for over 200 years. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Christian_3_Church_Description \n\nThis fine structure allows the recruitment of missionaries, and aids the conversion of the province and its neighbours. It also, however, significantly increases the unease and unhappiness of the Buddhist population in the area. The building itself is a mark of how seriously a province’s rulers take their Christian faith. \n\nHistorically, there was little agreement between daimyos as to the best way to deal with Christians and Christianity. Some saw it as a way of increasing trade with the outside world and, of course, getting more European guns; others saw it as a different path to God; still others viewed the faith with hostility as being un-Japanese. In 1597 Toyotomi Hideyoshi made his position perfectly clear when he had 26 Japanese and European Catholics rounded up, tortured and publically crucified. This horrible fate had its intended effect: warning his people against the risks inherent in the new, foreign faith. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Christian_4_Cathedral_Description \n\nA cathedral is a mighty structure, demonstrating the profound faith of their builders to the world. It is a major investment of time, money and craftsmanship, a hymn to God given physical, almost intimidating reality. The sheer size and magnificence of this building impresses people and converts them to Christianity across a wide area. The cathedral brings in a large number of worshippers, increasing the province’s income, and adds to the happiness of the local Christian population.\n\nOoura Cathedral in Nagasaki is Japan’s oldest wooden cathedral, but it is a building from the Meiji Restoration, almost 300 years after the Sengoku Jidai. Constructed in 1865 under the oversight of Frenchman Bernard Petitjean, it is now recognised as a national treasure. Earlier structures on the main islands did not survive under the Tokugawa shogunate: in 1614 an edict banned the practice of Christianity and forced the faith underground. Ooura Cathedral was constructed in part to honour the hidden Christians of Japan, the “kakure kirishitan”, who did not renounce their faith when ordered to do so by the shoguns. Life became easier for them once the Tokugawa shogunate ended, and Japan opened up once again to the outside world. In the space of a few decades, Japan went from a quiet backwater to an industrialised society, capable of taking on, and beating, the mighty Russian Empire in 1905. Foreign ideas were still foreign, but they were no longer forbidden. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Crafts_1_Market_Description \n\nA market adds to a province’s wealth and growth, and also allows a clan to recruit metsuke as agents. When two peasants barter, there is a market. When many come to do the same, there is wealth to be made and probably taxed. A permanent market can offer many services and goods for everyone in the province, and allow people to sell their surplus goods. Once people can trade, they can specialise, even a little, produce more and then trade for what they lack. A wise ruler encourages this.\n\nIt was, of course, beneath any samurai to engage in anything as common as trade. Wealth came from rents, land ownership and in rewards for loyal service. Often, wealth was accumulated in the form of rice koku, as taxes in kind. It was left to others to do business, and live as merchants in towns. Under the Tokugawa shogunate, the merchants did gain a certain practical influence, because they were the only people that the rice-rich daimyos and samurai could sell their koku to. The rice bartering system was never able to compete with a proper cash economy, if only because of the difficulty of moving mountains of rice sacks around! True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Crafts_2_Rice_Exchange_Description \n\nA rice exchange significantly improves a province’s wealth and growth. Rather than each village relying on its own crops and living from harvest to harvest, an exchange allows merchants to buy up rice crops, and ship them to market as needed. Overall, the effect is to even out the good and bad harvests at some cost to the peasants, who may not always be able to afford the food they have grown.\n\nMerchants were part of the social class of chonin, or townsmen. This gave them few privileges compared to the samurai warrior class. However, they were able to amass considerable wealth. This helped them survive the transition from an age of warfare to an age of enforced peace under the Tokugawa shogunate. Business went on as usual and, if anything, improved. In the long run, the samurai were not so fortunate: their social caste meant that they could not work and retain their honour as samurai. The strict social edicts of the Tokugawas didn’t help either, and many samurai were reduced to penury when there was no longer constant warfare. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Crafts_3_Merchant_Guild_Description \n\nA merchants’ guild greatly improves a province’s wealth and growth. Rather than competing with each other, a town’s merchant class work together, pool their resources and information, and look forward to enlarged profits. They can at last start to plan beyond the next harvest, or for the arrival of the next shipment of trade goods. \n\nAssociations of merchants were useful for collective risk-taking and collective bargaining. One merchant alone had little chance of getting any concession from his samurai overlords, but an entire town’s worth of merchants could present a united, if still respectful, front. Guilds were granted trading rights within a lord’s territory, in return for certain considerations. From a lord’s point of view, he could influence trade, tax it effectively, take a share of the wealth and still not actually sully his hands in the dirty business of trade. By acting together, the merchants could help finance major trade enterprises when one man alone would have difficulty raising the required working capital. True
building_description_texts_long_description_SHO_Crafts_4_Kanabukama_Description \n\nThis is a merchants’ association or mutual trading company, where the powerful manage trade both for themselves and others. The kabunakama even controls the trade activities of smaller merchants’ guilds, can set prices on goods, and can even bar dishonest or immoral merchants from trade altogether. The kabunakama does not exist to promote competition among merchants, but cooperation and, as a result, it boosts a province’s wealth and growth enormously and also improves the quality of metsuke who are recruited as agents.\n\nHistorically, kabunakama had much in common with the merchant adventurers and great trading companies of Europe. Often, they were granted trade rights in a town or over a particular commodity, but were then expected to pay substantial taxes to the shogun or daimyo for the privilege. Selling monopoly rights was something that all ruling classes did, as it was profitable and did not involve nobles in any of the sordid money-grubbing of common trade. Merchants did not, however, trade overseas with foreigners, except in very carefully controlled ways. Despite their enormous wealth, the merchants of the kabunakama did not improve their social status: as trading townsmen they were still far lower in the social pecking order than honest, hardworking peasant folk. True