unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Line_Polish_Legion The Polish Legion is a line infantry unit, able to give fire or charge home with bayonets. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Line_Provincial_Ottoman_Nizam_I_Cedit These soldiers are drilled and equipped in the European line infantry style. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Line_Prussian_Musketeers These line infantry soldiers are skilled in giving fire and pressing home an attack with the bayonet, but at the expense of dash and initiative. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Line_Russian_Moscow_Musketeers The Moscow Musketeers are a versatile force of line infantry. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Line_Russian_Musketeers Musketeers are line infantry, able to attack with fixed bayonets or fire disciplined volleys into an enemy’s ranks. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Line_Swiss_Foot These men are able to unleash a volley of fire and then go forwards in a decisive bayonet charge. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Melee_Ottoman_Cemaat_Janissaries These sword-armed soldiers are professional warriors, the heirs to a centuries’ old tradition of strict training. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Militia_Austrian_Landesschutzen These troops are a rifle-armed militia, and very effective against other militia units. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Militia_French_National_Guard The National Guard is a militia armed with muskets and bayonets, and relatively cheap to recruit. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Militia_Militia Militia are often poorly equipped and trained, but are ideal for maintaining public order. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Militia_Ottoman_Libyan_Bedouin These militia troops are an ideal garrison force, and can help maintain public order in desert regions. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Militia_Ottoman_Palestinian_Auxiliaries These troops are an infantry militia who help maintain public order. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Militia_Ottoman_Peasant_Levy These men are dragged from the fields, perhaps given muskets, and then herded in the direction of the enemy. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Militia_Prussian_Landwehr Landwehr soldiers are armed with muskets and bayonets, and are quite capable of defending their homes. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Mob_Armed_Citizenry In times of desperation, the people must defend their homes and loved ones from the monstrous, rapacious attacks of foreigners! False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Skirm_Austrian_Windbucshe_Jager These skirmishers are experts in fieldcraft, and armed with an unusual rifled airgun instead of a flintlock. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Skirm_British_Rifles Armed with a tough, accurate rifled musket, the Rifles are an elite skirmishing force. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Skirm_French_Voltiguers These musket-armed skirmishers are exceptionally good at using available cover, making them useful for ambushes. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Skirm_Jager These skirmishers are excellent shots, perfect for harassing an enemy from a distance. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Skirm_Nizam_I_Cedit_Rifles These troops of the “new model” army are armed, equipped and trained in the latest European fashion. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Skirm_Norwegian_Ski_Troops These men are a superb force of crack marksmen, able to hit targets with almost supernatural accuracy. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Skirm_Portuguese_Tiradores Sharpshooters and expert woodsmen all, the Tiradores are Portugal’s elite rifle corps. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Inf_Skirm_Prussian_Silesian_Schuetzen Elite rifle-armed troops, these men are crack shots and skilled in skirmish warfare. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Mounted_Inf_Ottoman_Mounted_Nizam_I_Cedit Armed with muskets and swords, these soldiers are can fight mounted and on foot. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Mounted_Inf_Russian_Mounted_Rifles Mounted Riflemen are skirmishers and snipers without peer, picking off leaders to sow confusion in enemy ranks. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Mounted_Inf_Spanish_Mounted_Cazadores These mounted light infantry help to slow the enemy advance and keep their own line untroubled by enemy skirmishers. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Mounted_Inf_Swedish_Mounted_Jager As mounted skirmishers these men harass the enemy and screen the main body of an army. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Placeholder Placeholder False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Small_Brig A brig is a lightly-armed, two-masted sailing ship, with exceptional handling and sailing qualities. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Small_French_Corvette Corvettes are small warships, handy to sail, and armed with a small number of 9-pounder guns. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Small_Galley A galley does not rely solely on the wind to move: banks of oars and rowers below deck make it manoeuvrable and handy. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Small_Sloop A sloop-of-war is a very manoeuvrable sailing vessel, with enough firepower to sting larger opponents at the very least. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Special_Bomb_Ketch This is a small, two-masted ketch-rigged vessel, adapted to carry a single large mortar upon its forward deck. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Special_Rocket_Ship A rocket ship is a floating battery, able to set any enemy vessel afire with a horrendous bombardment. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Steam_Ship_38 A steam-powered ship is not at the mercy of the wind, a valuable attribute for any admiral. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Steam_Ship_80 A steamship has sails but the engine gives it the tactical ability to ignore the wind in battle. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Steam_Ship_British_Ironclad This steamship carries an extra covering of iron plates, armouring the already strong wooden hull. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Steam_Ship_Frigate Quick and manoeuvrable, this frigate can sail against the wind thanks to its two enormous paddle wheels. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Trade_Ship_Dhow A dhow is a traditional Arab vessel, with a lateen sail. It is armed, but is primarily a trade ship. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Trade_Ship_Indiaman The Indiaman is an armed merchant ship, built for trade between Europe and the East. It can defend itself in need. False
unit_description_texts_description_text_Trade_Ship_Merchantmen The merchantman is built for trade, although it does carry a few light guns for defence. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_2_Decker_50 \n\nShips-of-the-line are the mainstay of fighting fleets; they are strong and stable gun platforms for battering enemy fleets to pieces. A 50-gun ship-of-the-line is a square-rigged, two-deck vessel, carrying two calibres of cannon: 24- and 18-pounders, with the heavier guns mounted on the lower deck. Though cheap compared to other two-deck warships, their broadside is still effective at close range, and best employed against frigates and smaller craft. A 50-gun ship should not be expected to last long in combat against larger battleships.\n\nBy the 1750s it was obvious that 50-gun ships lacked the hull strength and firepower to stand in the line of battle against larger vessels. Because of their size, there was a new production of British 50-gun ships to serve in shallow coastal waters during the American Revolution but, apart from this, their usefulness in battle was largely over. Various national admiralties removed these small battle ships from active service, or sent them to minor overseas stations where they were unlikely to encounter powerful enemies. Some survived as converted troop transports. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_2_Decker_64 \n\nThe 64-gun ship may lack some of the firepower of the other ships-of-the-line, but it still has a respectable broadside, and can be constructed at a lower cost. It can be regarded as a stepping stone between 50- and 74-gun ships, with more broadside weight than the first yet with a faster reloading time than the second thanks to its lighter cannons. Opinions differ as to whether this is a happy compromise.\n\nThe Royal Navy classed a 64-gun ship as a “third rate” ship, normally a classification reserved for 74-gun ships. Although small, the 64 was not without supporters: Captain Horatio Nelson’s favourite ship was HMS Agamemnon, a 64 built at Bucklers Hard in the New Forest. His crew, often called Agamemnons, loyally followed Nelson to his subsequent ships and successes. The Agamemnon itself was used by the Royal Navy during the American and French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic War and was at the Battle of Trafalgar. After nearly 30 years of hard service it ran aground off South America, but the entire crew survived the wreck. The "Eggs and Bacon", as the crew called it, looked after its men to the last. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_2_Decker_74 \n\nThe 74 is a supremely practical naval weapon and regarded as the best balance between defensive strength and manoeuvrability. A two-deck design, it is strong enough to mount very heavy 32-pounder cannons on its lower gun deck. These, when combined with the upper deck’s 18-pounders, give it a devastating broadside, although this is best delivered at close quarters.\n\nThe French developed the 74-gun ship concept in the mid-18th Century. The design was so good that other navies lost no time in copying it for themselves or taking French ships in action. Many French vessels were made from green timber that “worked” in heavy seas and therefore leaked; the French accepted this because they believed the green timber made the ships resilient. British 74s were well built too, although there was a regrettable tendency to save money by recycling timbers, along with their woodworm and rot, from older vessels!\n\nThe last 74, HMS Implacable, was finally scuttled in 1949! Built in 1800 by the French, and then captured by the British at Trafalgar in 1805, she stayed in active service until 1842. She ended her days as a coal hulk. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_2_Decker_80 \n\nThese large two-decker ships-of-the-line can hold more and heavier guns than most two-deck vessels. They carry 32- and 24-pounders. These powerful cannon do not have the fast reloading times of lighter pieces, but make up for that with weight of shot. It is most advantageous for a captain to hold his fire until close to the enemy, in order to do the maximum possible damage.\n\nHistorically, the “new pattern” 80-gun ship with two decks was considered a success. The previous three-deck 80s had been somewhat unwieldy in action. In 1758, the French 80-gun Foudroyant fought an action against HMS Monmouth (66 guns, third rate) off Cartagena in Spain. The fight lasted for over four hours, and only came to an end when HMS Swiftsure (70 guns, third rate) joined the battle. Foudroyant was captured. Once brought back to England, Foudroyant was refitted and repaired. In a further upset for the French, in 1782 HMS Foudroyant captured another French ship, the Pegase, earning her then-captain, John Jervis, a knighthood for the feat. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_2_Decker_HMS_Elephant \n\nLike all ships-of-the-line, HMS Elephant is not a handy ship, being slow and unresponsive to the helm. Good sailing qualities, however, are secondary to the weight of broadside that she can both deliver and withstand. This is important in a warship that is intended to form the centrepiece of any squadron and possibly act as an admiral’s flagship.\n\nBuilt on the River Hamble in Hampshire, an estuary with a centuries-old shipbuilding industry, HMS Elephant was one of a class of 12 third-rate, 74-gun warships. The class was designed by Sir Thomas Slade, possibly the best naval architect of his time, and most were built by private contractors using standardised plans. HMS Elephant was chosen by Vice-Admiral Nelson to be his squadron flagship at the Battle of Copenhagen (1801), thanks to her shallow draft, which was considered a useful feature when attacking a fleet at anchor. Another Slade-designed ship, HMS Victory, carried the promoted Viscount Nelson to his final victory and death at Trafalgar in 1805. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_3_Decker_106 \n\nWhile these warships are among the most powerful vessels afloat, they are lubberly sailors, being both slow and unresponsive. This is not a serious shortcoming because, armed with 106 cannons firing 32-, 24-, and 18-pounder balls on their three decks, they deliver a terrible and destructive broadside. They actually have more artillery than most land armies! Their cost, however, is a drawback and few navies can afford to build or maintain more than a handful of them.\n\nHistorically, 106-gun ships-of-the-line were never common, and hardly ever sent to overseas stations. They were pure battleships, existing only to fight in set-piece actions, and not for mundane duties such as protecting merchantmen, policing the seas and hunting down privateers. They were commissioned and richly decorated as a physical representation of the glory of the state, but this practice went into decline as warfare became more intense, forcing ships to become more functional. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_3_Decker_86 \n\nThis three-deck warship is a design compromise between wanting the firepower of a “first rate” battleship with the sea-keeping qualities of a 74-gun ship. Like many compromises, the result is not perfect, but the extra weight of fire in the broadside does compensate for poor sailing qualities. The design does have one unexpected benefit: enemy captains are often quick to identify this ship as a much larger vessel and run from a superior enemy!\n\nThe lower gun deck houses 32-pounders, and this explains the “tumblehome” shape: the bulge at water level and just above in the hull allows more room on the lower decks for the recoil of large cannons. Lighter guns on the higher decks did not recoil to the same extent.\n\nHistorically, only the British Royal Navy commissioned ships of this “second rate” class; other nations built large “first rates” instead. This was probably due to the Royal Navy’s need for large ships to act as flagships on foreign stations, an assignment that would have been wasteful and expensive for a very large ship. The second rate did retain some of the more favourable qualities of a first rate, including a robust hull. During the Battle of Cape Saint Vincent (1780) HMS Blenheim fought the Santissima Trinidad and took 105 hits to the hull, but only 13 crew members were killed and 48 wounded. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_3_Decker_British_2nd_Rate \n\nThis three-deck warship is a modified “second rate” ship, and the addition of extra guns alters the balance of the vessel and consequently its handling. While a normal second rate is somewhat lumbering, this ship is even less handy and responsive to the helm. The benefits in terms of additional firepower do, however, handsomely compensate for a loss of manoeuvrability.\n\nHistorically, the 98-gun ship was created by simply adding extra guns to the quarterdeck and increasing the weight of some of the other cannon. However, few nations chose to commission original ships of this type, preferring to build normal “first rates” instead. Only the Royal Navy bothered, as it needed large ships to act as flagships on overseas postings. Nine 98-gun ships were ordered during the French Revolutionary Wars, including HMS Boyne and HMS Union, both ship names emphasising loyalty to the British Crown. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_3_Decker_British_Heavy_1st_Rate \n\nLike most large ships-of-the-line, this vessel is a terrifying sight for enemies and with good reason: its broadside is enormous. Each side of the ship, let alone the whole thing, has more guns than many land armies can boast! Such firepower, however, makes the ship heavy and cumbersome under sail. This is little comfort to those caught by its broadside. Equally, the price of the vessel and its high upkeep costs are little comfort to enemies either.\n\nHistorically, ships as large and heavily protected as this over-sized first rate were incredibly expensive to maintain and required a large crew. They were often used as admiral’s flagships, as there was plenty of room for the admiral and his staff. The term flagship originates from the officers' custom of hanging distinctive pennants to denote their presence. These flags were often rather large: Lord Howe’s Union flag for use aboard his Royal Navy ship was 12-by-17 feet in size. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_4_Decker_Spanish_Santissima_Trinidad \n\nThe Santissima Trinidad is, however, an unwieldy beast and hardly responsive to the helm. This, however, is entirely secondary to the enormous firepower that her captain has at his command. There is no ship in the world to rival her and few that even bear comparison.\n\nBuilt in Havana in 1769, the Santissima Trinidad was the pride of the Spanish navy. Although a masterpiece of contemporary construction techniques, she was built to a very old-fashioned design principle. Most naval architects were beginning to realise that overall functionality was more important than size and firepower, but this ship harked back to a time when a hefty broadside was the only consideration. It was obvious to many experienced Spanish officers that her power lay in defence, but this was overlooked and she was put to sea with the fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805). She lost her sails under heavy fire from the British ships and was eventually forced to surrender, crippled and unable to bring her guns to bear, by HMS Neptune. Unfortunately, she was lost at sea during a storm after the battle. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Fix_Ottoman_Bombardment_Mortars \n\nTo the uneducated eye, a mortar looks like a large, stumpy cooking pot, set at an angle in a heavy wooden frame. Indeed, the weapon’s name may even come from its similarity to the mortars used to grind spices. Mortars use indirect fire, firing their percussive shells and quicklime high into the air to plunge down on enemy positions.\n\nUnlike a howitzer, a mortar uses a fixed, and relatively small, charge of gunpowder to propel its shell. Range is adjusted by changing the angle of fire; accuracy is subject to winds and weather. There is also a practical minimum range to mortar fire as the weapon cannot be aimed in a near-vertical position. The men that handle them are incredibly vulnerable to fast moving cavalry.\n\nModern mortars owe their widespread use to trench warfare in the First World War. Current designs, based on the British Stokes trench mortar, come in many sizes. Most can fire shells with proximity fuses as anti-personnel rounds. The larger examples can fire sophisticated “smart” munitions that guide themselves onto targets. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Fix_Rocket_Troop \n\nThe rockets these troops employ are iron tubes filled with gunpowder propellant; when fired in large volleys, the noise alone is unnerving and has a negative effect on enemy morale. Each rocket is laid in an angled launcher, and it is the job of the artilleryman to correctly judge the angle of launch so that the rockets drop in the middle of the enemy. He also needs to take into account wind, as the long tails of the rockets make them inaccurate. The fixed nature of this artillery means the crewmen are incredibly vulnerable to attack, especially from fast moving cavalry.\n\nHistorically, it was the Indian war rockets used by Tippu Sultan of Mysore that introduced Europeans to rocket bombardment. The British copied these weapons as the Congreve rocket system, and used them aboard ships as well as on land. A rocket troop was present at the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815, although accounts of their effectiveness vary. Congreve’s system even included illumination rounds to light up the battlefield! False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Foot_12_lber \n\nDespite the name, foot artillery batteries are towed by horses. The artillerymen, however, march alongside their pieces rather than ride. Because the guns can be loaded with round or canister shot they are effective at long and short range: canister shot turns cannons into gigantic fowling pieces. Artillery is slower than the rest of the army and, if left behind and undefended, will be vulnerable to cavalry attacks. Disabling the enemy’s guns should always be a high priority for a general, and artillerymen only have the most rudimentary sword skills for their defence.\n\nBy the late eighteenth century, improvements in artillery design had drastically reduced the weight of cannons and their field carriages. Design improvements had reduced the time to get into action from the march. By carefully positioning the barrel in the centre of the gun carriage, the balance, and manoeuvrability of guns was significantly improved. Napoleon was an artilleryman, and his use of guns in concentration against small parts of the enemy battle line persuaded many nations to increase the size of their own artillery corps. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Foot_7_lber_Howitzer \n\nHowitzers fall somewhere between guns and mortars, the other main artillery types. Like guns, they have limited mobility and are slow moving, but are they not as accurate as cannons. They do not fire straight at the target, but lob shots high into the air to plunge down on a target. The charge of powder and the barrel angle can be varied, which means a howitzer can send an almost-vertical shot over a wall. Given such an ability, they are best employed to bombard areas where enemies are concentrated. In close action, they can fire canister rounds directly into enemy formations, blasting them with hundreds of musket balls.\n\nHistorically, howitzers were not easy to use. Ballistics was not a perfectly understood science and, apart from inaccurate targeting, a shell did not necessarily do any damage when it arrived. Erratic winds could send shells flying off course. Shell fuses had to be lit while still in the barrel, and the length of fuse judged to match the flight time. If the fuse was too short, the shell could explode in mid air; too long and the enemy might be able to put it out before the shell exploded! False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Foot_Experimental_Howitzer \n\nHowitzers fall somewhere between guns and mortars, the other main artillery types. Like guns, they can be moved, if slowly. They do not fire straight at the target, but lob shots high into the air to plunge down on a target. The charge of powder and the barrel angle can be varied, which means a howitzer can lob missiles over a wall or intervening woods. In close action, they can fire canister rounds directly into enemy formations, blasting them with hundreds of musket balls. These experimental batteries can also fire carcass shells and quicklime rounds, setting fire to enemy structures or poisoning enemy troops with caustic chemicals.\n\nHistorically, ballistics was not an imperfectly-understood science and, apart from inaccurate targeting, a shell did not necessarily do any damage when it arrived. Erratic winds could send shells off course. Shell fuses had to be lit while still in the barrel, and the length of fuse judged to match the flight time. If the fuse was too short, the shell could explode in mid air; too long and the enemy might be able to put it out before it exploded! False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Foot_French_Artillerie_a_Pied \n\nThis elite unit is precise and deadly, but it does have the disadvantage of being vulnerable to fast moving cavalry and melee attacks. The soldiers who man these guns, although armed with swords, are not trained to defend themselves effectively. The power here lies in the cannons, and placing them at a discreet distance from the fray is always advisable.\n\nFormed in 1808, the Artillerie a Pied consisted of six companies of gunners and a company of ouvriers-pontonniers. These ouvriers-pontonniers were responsible for building bridges, allowing the artillery to pass swiftly and safely to their positions. There was some argument amongst the engineers and the artillery over who had command of these men but it was eventually decided that they should be assigned to the artillery. Ouvriers-pontonniers could construct a bridge of sixty to eighty pontoons, some 500 feet or 150 metres long, in just seven hours. They were also known to improvise if supplies were short, creating bridges from any materials that were to hand. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Foot_Grand_Battery_Convention \n\nWith twice as many guns as an ordinary artillery unit, the Grand Battery is an exceptionally strong unit. Its cannons have both a long range and tremendous killing power. However, it is vulnerable to cavalry attack even when not emplaced, as it is slow moving. The gun crews are only armed with swords and relatively untrained in hand-to-hand combat. Fighting is not their task: serving the guns is their only duty.\n\nThe Grand Battery was the turning point of Napoleon Bonaparte’s career: he was promoted to brigadier-general thanks to his skills and drive. As a trained artillerist, he knew that the real killing power in an army was in the heavy guns, not musketry or sabres. The idea of a Grand Battery was used in many of his later battles. It relied on weight of fire against a single section of an enemy line to blow a hole through any enemy defences. Against the storm of shot that a grand battery could produce, flesh stood little chance. The best defence was to use a reverse slope and hide behind the crest of a hill, rather than endure such a bombardment. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Foot_Italian_Guard_Foot_Artillery \n\nThis elite artillery unit is capable causing a swathe of devastation and chaos in the enemy. Though very precise, it does have the disadvantage of being vulnerable to fast moving cavalry and melee attacks. The soldiers who man these guns should not be expected to defend themselves in melee for very long: they are gunners, not warriors. Their power lies in the cannons, so placing them at a safe distance from the fray is advisable.\n\nHistorically, the French army owed the success of its artillery to Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval. The son of a magistrate, he entered the French Royal Artillery as a volunteer, and quickly rose through the ranks. After becoming lieutenant-general and commander of the order of St Louis in 1765, he fell out of favour with the royal court and only returned in 1776, when he obtained the position of first inspector of artillery. It was during this time that he began a series of reforms that revolutionised French cannon production. His Gribeauval System of standardised components was adopted by other nations, including the United States. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Foot_Russian_10_lber_Unicorn \n\nThis impressive piece of artillery, named for the unicorn traditionally engraved on the barrel, has fantastic range capabilities and fires a wide array of shot types. A howitzer and cannon hybrid, the unicorn is operated by skilled artillerymen who, although expertly trained in the firing of cannons, lack skills required for effective defence in melee. However, the power and versatility of the unicorn guns on the battlefield more than make up for this weakness.\n\nThe first unicorn was cast by Andrey Chokhov, a Russian gun founder who began his career during the reign of Ivan the Terrible (1547-84). He supervised the creation of many of Russia’s most famous artillery pieces including the behemoth “Tsar Pushka”, or Tsar Cannon. This masterpiece was commissioned by Tsar Feodor and weighed a whopping 38 metric tons. It originally sat on a wooden carriage that was later destroyed during Napoleon’s attack on Moscow in 1812. It now sits in the Kremlin next to the “Tsar Bell”, the biggest bell ever made but never rung. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Horse_6_lber \n\nThe cannon used by horse artillery lack range and firepower compared to other artillery pieces. This is considered unimportant; speed is all! Horse artillery units can move guns to a firing position, deploy, and then remove themselves with some despatch. They can be where they are needed to support and attack or break an enemy advance. They are a tactical reserve that any general will welcome, or a means to exploit a weakness in the enemy line.\n\nHistorically, Frederick the Great of Prussia observed that even the smallest artillery piece could be enough to break enemy defensive formations, leaving them open to subsequent attacks by infantry. He concluded that speed and mobility, rather than simple weight of shot, was important. This observation lead him to order the development of a ‘galloper’ gun, and a six-pounder that could be dragged at the gallop. Frederick’s contribution to military tactics was acknowledged by Napoleon himself, who considered the king a master tactician. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Horse_French_Artillerie_a_Cheval \n\nIn horse artillery units everyone in the gun crews rides into battle: drivers ride the lead horses in teams, while gun crews sit on the gun limbers. The Artillerie a Cheval represent a good balance between speed of movement and firepower. The crews are highly experienced and disciplined, and their intimate knowledge of the guns enables them to deliver accurate, devastating shots at long range.\n\nHistorically, these men and their cannons were part of Napoleon’s Imperial Guard, and held in the highest regard by the emperor. Admittance to the Imperial Guard was extremely tough and, because only the very experienced or very good gained entry, the Guard could boast of the very best gunners in Europe. The horse artillery division was the elite within the elite, and got the best of everything. When the supply of suitable horses ran low in 1815, Napoleon ordered his Horse Grenadiers to give up their mounts to be draft animals for his beloved horse artillery. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Art_Horse_Italian_Guard_Horse_Artillery \n\nBecause all horse artillery gun crews ride into battle, they can quickly counter enemy threats wherever they appear, and be repositioned as the battle ebbs and flows. Guard artillerymen are experienced gunners and excellent horsemen. Their fire is devastating, and delivered with some urgency.\n\nHistorically, the Guard Horse Artillery was a regiment of Napoleon’s Imperial Guard, the cream of the French military. The Imperial Guard was virtually an army within the army, made up of the Old and Middle Guard, veterans from his previous campaigns, and the Young Guard, the cream of the new recruits. Admittance to the ranks was extremely tough and, because only the very best gained entry, it could also boast the very best gunners in Europe. These elite troops were a grade above the rest of the French army, and enjoyed certain privileges such as better uniforms, food and equipment. They were also carefully looked after by Napoleon, both on and off the battlefield. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_British_Dragoon_Guards \n\nDragoon Guards are trained to fight on horseback and foot. They each carry a sabre and carbine musket but are only capable of firing when dismounted. Their slightly impetuous nature makes them less effective than other more disciplined cavalry units but their flexibility and skill in close-combat makes them incredibly valuable. Having the option to unleash these men at key strategic points on the field of battle can easily provide the upper hand over an ill-prepared enemy.\n\nDragoons were often considered to be inferior soldiers by “proper” regiments of horse: not really cavalrymen with class, but jumped-up infantry. They did not need particularly good horses because they did not fight on horseback, so they were cheaper to equip and pay than regular cavalry. In the British Army the designation “dragoon guards” was used as a face-saving measure when “real” cavalry units were converted to dragoons; despite becoming a lower class unit, they kept their slightly elitist cavalry attitudes. The British Army still has dragoon guard units and they now use light tanks in reconnaissance and security roles. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_British_Horse_Guards \n\nIt is the task of the heavy cavalry to break the enemy by shock and impact. Simply put, the Horse Guards are expected to charge home and smash enemy ranks through weight and speed. They are not for chasing down enemies: that is the work of faster, lighter cavalry forces. Instead, they are a battering ram, hurled over short distances against close-formed enemies in the hope of producing a breakthrough and utter consternation. Thanks to being part of the royal household guard, these cavalrymen also lend a touch of class to the brutal business of a cavalry charge!\n\nHistorically, the Horse Guards Parade in London was the setting for “Trooping of the Colour”, a practice that dates back to the 17th Century. A regiment’s colours were a rallying point on the battlefield and so they were shown to the soldiers beforehand, in order that they would be recognised in battle. Today, the ceremony is used to celebrate the official birthday of the ruling monarch; at the time of writing Queen Elizabeth attends every year and takes the salute at the end of the parade. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_British_Horse_Guards_Uxbridge \n\nHis presence alone is enough to inspire battle-weary troops to fight on, even in the bleakest of situations: a general who carries the respect of his troops (if not his fellow officers) is a valuable asset. Although cavalrymen lead from the front, it is advisable to keep this man away from particularly dangerous fights, for his protection if nothing else.\n\nHenry Paget, the Earl of Uxbridge, later Marquis of Anglesey, was Wellington’s cavalry commander during the 1815 Waterloo campaign. This was not a comfortable arrangement for either of them, as Paget had proved himself to be something less than a gentleman by seducing, and running off with, the wife of Wellington’s youngest brother. This social gaffe put a bit of a crimp on what had been a distinguished military career as a cavalry leader. Nobody denied that Paget was courageous and skilful, but he was a cad and a bounder. He is also the man who had his leg shot off at Waterloo in the middle of a conversation with Wellington. It is not recorded whether their dry exchange of remarks: “By God, sir, I've lost my leg!” and “By God, sir, so you have!” was accompanied by an excusable smirk on Wellington’s behalf. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_British_KGL_Dragoons \n\nWhen mounted, these troops can either use their deadly heavy swords in close combat or break enemy line formations with a powerful charge. Their horses allow them to reposition quickly to counter enemy moves, quickly lending firepower to beleaguered comrades. However, they have to dismount before firing their carbines. They sometimes need to be kept on a tight rein by a commander, because their eagerness for battle can sometimes become recklessness.\n\nIn 1807, the Danes refused naval support to the British. The British, for their part, feared the Danes would support the French, and so part of the King’s German Legion marched to Denmark. On the road to Copenhagen, the 1st King’s German Light Dragoons learned that there was an arsenal in the fortress of Friederickswerk. Despite having only a single squadron to hand, Captain Krauchenberg, the dragoon’s commander, sent a message demanding the fortress’ surrender. He claimed that an army of 10,000 was on the way. His enormous fib worked, and the KGL Dragoons secured an impressive haul of enemy guns and ammunition, just as daylight revealed their actual numbers! By then, it was too late for the hapless Danes. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_British_Life_Guards \n\nLife Guards are an elite court regiment where appearance is as important as fighting ability. This doesn’t diminish their skills as soldiers: their powerful charge is capable of breaking the most stoic of enemy lines and their skill in a fight is almost unrivalled. However, their pride can lead some to be a little hot headed: they lack the discipline of other cavalry units and, like all cavalry, they may prove ineffective against infantry in square.\n\nHistorically, perhaps the oddest sounding of the various royal guard cavalry regiments were the curiously named “horse grenadier guards”. Common sense would seem to indicate that these men would only ever get to throw their grenades once, before their horses took off at speed towards all points of the compass! In British service, the Household Cavalry regiments, including the horse grenadiers did not, and do not, have sergeants: they have “corporals of horse”. The word “sergeant” has the same origins as “servant”, and no gentleman, even a private trooper, is ever a servant. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_British_Royal_Scots_Greys \n\nThe men of the Greys are each armed with a flintlock carbine and the standard British heavy cavalry sword, a man-killing butcher’s blade of a sword when used from horseback in close combat. Like all Scotsmen, they are sure they are the best soldiers in the world and can fight like the Devil. This may be true, but more disciplined and less impetuous cavalry can beat them.\n\nMore properly called the 2nd Royal North British Dragoons, the Scots Greys were one of the oldest dragoon regiments in British service. The term “North Britain” was preferred in official circles to “Scotland” after the Act of Union between England and Scotland, and abortive Jacobite rebellions, but the name Scots Greys was used anyway. Distinguished by their all-grey mounts, the 2nd RNBD achieved immortality as part of the Union Brigade in Uxbridge’s magnificent and successful heavy cavalry charge against the French centre at Waterloo. Sergeant Charles Ewart of the 2nd RNBD captured an Eagle in the action, but the whole of the British heavy cavalry were not kept in-hand, and were “blown” for the rest of the battle. Lady Elizabeth Butler’s painting “Scotland Forever” depicts their charge in all its glory, and remains one of the finest examples of patriotic art ever created. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Carabiniers \n\n Carabiniers are a brute force unit, used to deal the final blow that drives an enemy from the field of battle. They are excellent close combat troops. Their only weakness is against well-disciplined elite infantry who are capable of forming a square: this combination can prove deadly to this slow-moving unit. As heavy cavalry they are not expected to chase down an enemy, as this is a job better saved for light cavalry forces.\n\nFollowing the French Revolution, many of the royal corps in the French army were abolished and French carabiniers had every reason to expect that the same fate awaited them. In an attempt to preserve the traditions and privileges of their corps they sent Colonel Comte de Pradel to appeal to the Legislative Assembly. After a vote the new organisation of the French cavalry was decided. The carabiniers remained in service but became known as the ‘Grenadiers des troupes a cheval’ and their gold-trimmed hat was replaced with a peaked bearskin cap. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Cuirassiers \n\nEquipped with heavy, straight swords and wearing armour, cuirassiers are melee cavalry. If the cuirassiers can get in among their foes, then they can do bloody work and have some protection in the fight granted by their cuirasses and heavy helmets. They are rightly feared by enemy infantry, and other cavalry forces are foolish not to treat them with a degree of respect. The price paid for this imposing strength is in speed: cuirassiers are far from swift, dashing cavalrymen. They are heavyweights, and killers.\n\nIn many ways, Cuirassiers hark back to an older style of warfare: cavalrymen had always been armoured, until the widespread use of firearms meant that armour was more trouble than it was worth. The magnificence of their appearance, however, added to their worth on the battlefield. Their “Minerva” style helmets merely added to the impression that here was a unit of giants. The effect was intended to be quite intimidating, and it worked: cuirassiers were always big men on big horses, heavily armoured and well trained to use shock against any weak enemy. The French army eventually abandoned the cuirass as an item of field equipment in 1915. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Dragoons \n\nThe Dragoons’ strength lies in their versatility: on horseback they can produce an impressive charge or they can ride to critical spots on a battlefield where firepower is needed. Once dismounted, they can engage in melee or use their muzzle-loading muskets to fire upon the enemy. This flexibility is also their greatest weakness: they are the slowest of all cavalry units and may have difficulty when facing heavier cavalry and elite infantry.\n\nHistorically, the first dragoons were infantrymen, trained to ride into battle but fight on foot. Equipping cavalry units with horses was an expensive business, and so the best were always kept for the ‘real’ cavalry, leaving the dragoons to make do with cheaper, slower steeds. Dragoons slowly changed into cavalry soldiers like any other, and stopped fighting as mounted infantry, although regiments did retain the dragoon title. The “old” cavalry had always regarded them as social inferiors, and the infantry had resented them for not being proper soldiers, so the dragoons welcomed their new acceptability as full-blown cavalry. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_French_Carabiniers \n\nThough no longer necessarily equipped with carbines, the origin of their name, carabiniers still command respect and fear in equal measure from enemies. Rather than firepower, they have a powerful charge they use to plough through enemies, breaking and scattering men with their straight heavy swords. Their mounts are among the slowest horses used by cavalry, and are best employed in planned attacks rather than the role of reserve cavalry.\n\nHistorically, French Carabiniers had royalist roots but, unlike the other royal units, managed to escape abolition during the French Revolution, and instead found a place in France’s newly reorganised cavalry. Despite this, the carabiniers still had some royalist sympathies and frequently clashed with the Revolutionary authorities. When Napoleon came into power he showered them with “armes d’honneur” in order to gain their loyalty. It worked. After the carabiniers sustained casualties in 1809 against the Austrians, Napoleon revised their uniforms, giving them cuirasses and helmets. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_French_Cuirassiers_Murat \n\nThese are big men on big horses, led by Joachim Murat. They wear breastplates and reinforced helmets for protection in close combat, and can charge home with terrific force too. They carry heavy, straight swords which they can use to fearsome man-killing effect. A wise commander uses Murat’s force as a battering ram to punch a hole in an enemy line.\n\nJoachim Murat was executed by firing squad in 1815. He met death with the same courage he always showed in battle, rejecting the offered blindfold. Early in his career he impressed Napoleon by securing the artillery that repulsed the Royalists during the 13 Vendemiaire fighting. He was repaid by being named King of Naples and Sicily. Although brave in battle, Napoleon feared that Murat had no moral courage and little intelligence. This was the case, as he turned against his former master and, when that didn’t work, tried to ingratiate himself again. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_French_Cuirassiers_Ney \n\nThese big men mounted on big horses are led by General Michel Ney, and their primary task is to crash into enemy forces and engage in hand-to-hand combat. To this end, they wear “cuirass”; back and breast armoured plates over leather padding, along with reinforced metal helmets. They carry heavy straight swords. A wise commander with a cuirassier force uses it as a battering ram to hit the enemy at a critical point.\n\nIn 1799, ex-civil servant Michel Ney began his career as a hussar and by 1799 his talents had already made him a general de division. He was soon taken under Napoleon’s wing and given control of the VI Corps of the Grande Armee. He continued to serve with distinction, finally earning recognition for his bravery during Napoleon’s campaign against Russia. Whilst leading the III Corps, he and his troops were overcome by the enemy and deemed lost, but Ney managed to cut his way through the Russian lines and returned to Napoleon, who dubbed him “the bravest of the brave”. His foolish charge at Waterloo in 1815, however brave, ruined the French cavalry for the remainder of the battle. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_French_Grenadiers_a_Cheval \n\nGrenadiers a Cheval ride the largest and strongest steeds. Although relatively slow, their charge into an enemy is almost certain to do terrible damage. Once in close combat, the grenadiers are strong enough to continue the slaughter. They may meet their match charging against infantry in square, or in a fight with well-disciplined elite infantry but, even then, they embrace death with the same resolve they display in attack.\n\nTo modern eyes, the concept of a mounted grenadier looks more than a little odd: surely the horses would panic at the first grenade explosion? Like all other grenadiers, the Grenadiers a Cheval were large men, chosen for their physical qualities. To be admitted to the grenadiers, a man had to been cited for bravery, have several campaigns under his belt, and be a strapping fellow. Mounted on large black horses, and resplendent in their bearskins, they made for an intimidating presence and were nicknamed ‘The Giants’ or ‘The Gods’ by their fellow Frenchmen. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Garde_du_Corp \n\nThe Garde du Corp are elite cavalry, but they are also a court regiment where appearance is as important as fighting ability. As gentlemen they are hardly expected to associate with the common sort of soldier, and this attitude makes them unpopular with the rest of the army. However, regardless of the way they are perceived, only the best and toughest can enter the Corp, and many an enemy has met their maker at the end of their heavy swords or beneath the hooves of their thunderous charging steeds.\n\nHistorically, the Garde du Corp was the royal household cavalry, charged with the protection of the king and his household. During Napoleon’s reign as Emperor they were disbanded, although Napoleon did have an equivalent unit within his Imperial Guard. As with the Household Cavalry in Britain, household guard regiments did not, and do not, have sergeants: they have a “corporal of horse” or the equivalent. The word “sergeant” has the same origins as “servant”, and no gentleman, no matter what his rank, is ever a servant. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Italian_Guards_of_Honour \n\nThese men make excellent melee troops, riding hard into battle with their sabres drawn. Their only weakness is when facing well-disciplined elite infantry in square formation; this combination is one that proves deadly to slow heavy cavalry. Guards of Honour sacrifice speed for power, and are not expected to chase down an enemy. They are a brute force, a fist to smash against an enemy line, used to deal the blow that drives an enemy from the battlefield.\n\nFollowing his disastrous campaign in Russia, Napoleon returned home and set about rebuilding his Grande Armee. Cavalry units were incredibly expensive to recruit, yet Napoleon managed to recruit 10,000 elite horsemen at no expense to France’s budget. He recruited new cavalry units from the nobles and bourgeois, who were expected to provide their own horses, equipment and uniform. In return they would be assured the rank of sous-lieutenant, providing they completed 12 months service. This qualifier was to prove extremely important, as desertion was rife amongst these pampered children of the upper classes. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Life_Guards_of_Horse \n\nThe impact of their charge on an unprotected infantry unit is a heartening sight for nearby comrades, and a terrible one for enemy units. Once their initial charge has shaken the enemy, this unit can then engage in close combat, hacking with their straight heavy swords at anyone unfortunate to still be alive. Though powerful, they are still at a disadvantage against elite infantry and almost any infantry properly formed up in a square.\n\nHistorically, French cavalry were considered among the best during the Napoleonic Wars, despite the French not necessarily having the best individual horsemen. Instead, French cavalry strength lay in the organisation and strict discipline of the regiments. On the battlefield, the French often had remounts ready to take the place of fallen horses. Regiments were trained well enough, and expected, to change formations and strategic positions on the battlefield as and when required. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Ottoman_Silahtar_Guard \n\nFor the Ottomans, military service is not a burden, but an honour and one that men should readily embrace. The greatest honour is reserved for the Silahtar Guard, who are charged with protecting the sultan himself. If needed these troops will lay down their lives for him; such sacrifice demands an iron resolve, and the Silahtar are not easily shaken in battle. They are armed with lances, excellent for breaking through enemy lines with a devastating charge.\n\nBy the end of the 18th century the Ottoman Empire, despite still having an effective military, was not the power it had been. The Ottoman army was under-funded, and many men left the military to find other work. This was especially true of the cavalry. Many of the old feudal Sipahis had disappeared, and even the Silahtar Guard was largely diminished. Recognising the need for modernisation, Sultan Selim III (1789-1807) attempted to reform the Ottoman military along European lines. Unfortunately, the janissaries violently resisted his reforms, resulting in Selim’s murder. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Ottoman_Siphai_Cavalry \n\nThe Siphai are unswervingly faithful and deserving of their elite status. Mounted on the finest horses, they carry ornate lances that are deadly when used at the charge. When delivered to the flanks or rear of an enemy, such a charge often proves decisive in a fight. Their heavy lances mean the Siphai are vulnerable during prolonged melee and against well-trained line infantry.\n\nAs almost feudal fief-holders, Siphai were granted the income from a parcel of land in exchange for their military service, and were expected to supply a number of armed men. They enjoyed the high status common to many cavalry corps, and the disciplined Siphai saw themselves as superior to the oft-unruly janissaries. Rivalry between the two corps was a barely concealed simmering hatred at times. A contributing factor was that Siphai were all ethnic Turks, whereas the janissaries recruited as children from provincial Christian families and converted to the Islamic faith. Despite these petty matters, Siphai represented the best horsemen available to the Sublime Porte. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Prussian_Cuirassiers \n\nThe primary task of cuirassiers is to crash into enemy forces and engage in close-combat. Unlike the cuirassiers of other nations, Prussians disdain the heavy cuirasses worn as protection, relying instead on cold hard steel of their heavy straight swords to win the argument. They nonetheless keep the name. A wise commander with a cuirassier force under his command uses it as a battering ram to hit the enemy at the critical point and is careful not to unleash them too soon or against unshaken, superior troops.\n\nHistorically, Frederick William II issued the order that forbade cuirassiers from wearing the cuirass in 1790. A couple of regiments had already forsaken their heavy armour three years earlier but this order specifically forbade all regiments from wearing the cuirass. The ban remained in place until 1814-1815 when cuirassiers were once again allowed to wear armour, predominantly pieces captured from French troops.\n\nCuirassiers still exist in modern armies, although their armour is now purely ceremonial. The French army still has two regiments of cuirassiers, the Italians have a Presidential Honour Guard and, technically, the Household Cavalry in the British army are also cuirassiers. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Republican_Horse_Guards \n\n Heavy cavalry’s purpose is to break the enemy by shock. Simply put, the Horse Guards are expected to charge home and smash enemy ranks by weight and speed. They are not for chasing down enemies: this is the work of faster, lighter cavalry forces. Instead, they are a battering ram, hurled over short distances against close-formed enemies in the hope of producing a breakthrough and further confusion. However, when confronted by elite infantry in a square formation, these horsemen meet their match and charging blindly in could lead to heavy losses.\n\nHistorically, the Horse Guards Parade buildings in London were designed by William Kent, completed in 1755 and used for the “Trooping of the Colour”, a tradition that continues to this day. Indeed, the Horse Guards, as part of the Blues and Royals, themselves remain a feature of the modern British Army, although they now use tanks rather than horses. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Russian_Chevalier_Garde \n\nThe Chevaliers Garde is the senior unit of the Russian Imperial Guard cavalry, charged with the personal protection of the Tsar. Only the most experienced troops gain entry into this esteemed unit, and they are as expert in close combat and horsemanship. Armed with straight, heavy cavalry swords and protected by cuirasses, they are a force to be respected. As heavy cavalry, however, they can rarely keep pace with the light cavalry.\n\nIn 1800, the Russian Chevaliers Garde regiment was formed by Tsar Paul, a reorganisation of the existing Chevalier Guard corps. It had been a ceremonial regiment, but after 1800 the Garde were an active field force as well. This apparently egalitarian fairness in expecting his bodyguards to actually do some fighting was about as far as Paul’s levelling instinct went. Other reforms he carried out included shutting down all private printing presses in Russia and the banning of the words “society”, “revolution” and “citizen”. If you can’t write or talk about ideas, perhaps the ideas will die… False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Russian_Lifeguard_Horse \n\nThe Lifeguard Horse troops are members of Russia’s Imperial Guard. They are a terrifying sight to behold on the battlefield. In close combat, they wield straight heavy cavalry swords and the armour they wear provides them with protection against enemy blows. Their horses are slow, but very strong, and they use them to batter and intimidate enemy infantry with powerful cavalry charges.\n\nIn 1800, army reforms split the Tsar’s Lifeguard cavalry into several different regiments: the Horse Guards, Lifeguard Hussars, Lifeguard Cossacks and, most senior of all, the Chevalier-Garde. The Lifeguard first saw action against Napoleon in the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805, but were driven back by cavalry of Napoleon’s own Imperial Guard. It was Napoleon’s victory at Austerlitz that effectively destroyed the Third Coalition against France and thereby altered European politics. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Heavy_Spanish_Guardias_da_Corp \n\nThese cavalrymen are expected to protect the king and his household, but they are not just a court regiment for show. With a powerful charge, they can deal a devastating blow to an enemy line. However, their horses are slow moving and, like all cavalry, vulnerable to infantry in square. As heavy cavalry they are little use chasing down enemies; they are at their best when used to deal a crushing blow to an enemy.\n\nHistorically, Spain’s reputation as a European power had suffered greatly under the rule of the Hapsburg family and Charles II. However, King Carlos III instigated a cultural revival, and his reign quickly became known as the “Ilustracion”. The arts, sciences and economy flourished as intellectuals embraced new ideas from all over the globe and travelled Europe to broaden their understanding. The army also saw a marked improvement, thanks to forward-thinking generals, who attempted to emulate the French army, correctly regarded as the best in western Europe. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Lancer_Austrian_Ulans \n\nLike all lancers, it is their weapons that give them a distinct advantage in the first seconds of contact. A unit of lancers, charging into the attack, is frightening indeed to the targets of their ire. However, a lance is not the handiest of weapons in a melee, so the ulans should break off, reform and charge anew rather than stay in hand-to-hand combat. Like all shock cavalry, they should not be thrown into ill-considered attacks against prepared or elite infantry in square formations.\n\nThe Austrian decision to raise lancer regiments was a consequence of conquering former Polish provinces: Polish manpower was there to be exploited, and Poles were regarded as expert lancers. The first units were raised by the order of Emperor Joseph II (1741-90), but it was under his successor, Leopold, that the first proper regiments were created. The Poles had a long tradition of fielding lancer regiments, and the Austrians made full use of this experience. Ulans were armed, dressed, and trained in a distinctly Polish style: the rank and file were also mostly Polish speakers. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Lancer_French_7th_Lancers \n\nThe lance is probably the oldest cavalry weapon. It allows the user to put all his weight, and that of his charging horse, behind one very sharp point. In the hands of a skilled man that point can be driven right through a man. This makes lances intimidating to face but, if a lancer does not kill his target, he is vulnerable: a lance is less use than a sword in a melee, so the lancer is at a disadvantage. This is also true against well-trained infantry capable of forming square.\n\nHistorically, many nations used lancers. Napoleon even recruited Polish lancers to be part of his Imperial Guard. Surprisingly, each type of cavalry regiment required its own set of horse furniture, especially designed for the tactics that would be used. Lancer saddles tended to be made of beech wood, covered in black leather and reinforced with metal bands. They differed from the more elaborate dragoon saddle that required holsters for pistols, and a heavy sheepskin to protect the weapons and the lower body of the rider. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Lancer_Lancers \n\nThe lance is probably among the oldest of cavalry weapons. It gives the user a chance to put all his weight and that of his charging horse into one very sharp point. A lance that can, in skilled hands, be driven right through any enemy. When coupled with the fast pace of their horses, a lancer’s charge is very intimidating. However, if the lancer does not kill his target, he leaves himself vulnerable. A long lance is less use in a melee than a sword, and a lancer is at a disadvantage once the close fighting starts, especially against well-trained infantry capable of forming square.\n\nHistorically, many nations used lancers. The French army adopted lancers with some enthusiasm, and Napoleon even included Polish lancers in his Imperial Guard. In India the lance had long been used as a weapon: lancer skills were often practiced by “pegging”, picking tent pegs out of the ground with the lance tip, or “pig-sticking”, the hunting of wild pigs or even wild dogs with the lance. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Lancer_Prussian_Brandenburg_Uhlans \n\nThe Brandenburg Uhlans are lucky enough to count some of the most experienced cavalrymen in Europe among their number. These men are excellent riders and can persuade their steeds into breathtaking acts of speed, be it to reach a surrounded friendly unit or to charge down a routing enemy unit. However, should these men find themselves in prolonged close combat they will quickly suffer heavy losses. They are best employed in short, sharp attacks that give them room to manoeuvre.\n\nHistorically, Major Fredirick von Schill of the Prussian army was the original commander of what would later become the Brandenburg Uhlans. It was his actions that would lead Fredrick II to rename the regiment. Schill decided that the newly-created state of Westphalia was ripe for rebellion and made the ill-advised decision to rise against Napoleon. This revolt was quickly crushed, and Schill paid a terrible price for his folly. He was decapitated, his body was dumped in an unmarked grave, and his head was sent to Jerome Bonaparte, the ruler of Westphalia, as a trophy. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Lancer_Prussian_Towarczys \n\nThe Towarczys lancers are a unique force in Prussian service: fast moving, and with high morale thanks to their self-belief. Trained to attack at the full gallop, their lances give them an advantage in the first few moments of hand-to-hand combat. This is often enough to break unprepared or disorganised enemies. Like all lancers, however, they are not good in a prolonged fight, and should withdraw and regroup rather than stay in a melee. Only a foolish commander would order them to attack prepared infantry in a square.\n\nOriginally, these troops had been the Bosniaks in Prussian service but, after 1800 they were recruited from Polish territory that had been recently conquered by Prussia. Despite the changes, they remained light lancers, indeed the only lancers in the Prussian army until the Uhlans were raised in 1808. The regiment adapted a traditional Polish idea of the nobility serving as cavalry officers called “towarzysz”, or companions. Originally, these men had joined the army with their followers, and their pay and privileges were entirely dependent on the size of their personal retinue. The Corps Towarczys was present at the Battle of Eylau in 1807, as part of the 3rd Division of the Prussian Corps; this small force was pretty much all that was left of the Prussian military after their crushing defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in 1806. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Lancer_Russian_Cossack_Cavalry \n\nCossacks are cavalrymen without peer, as might be expected of steppe folk. There are few soldiers that can withstand their terrifying charge, making them excellent shock troops. As is often the case, their courage and eagerness to enter battle betrays a certain wildness; their undisciplined nature can find them plunging blindly into trouble, making them particularly vulnerable in melee.\n\nHistorically, Russians and other Eastern Europeans had an ambiguous relationship with the Cossacks. There was admiration for their warrior culture and freewheeling ways, yet a certain wariness of their wild nature. They lacked the discipline of other troops and had a certain fondness for drink, but it was their constant harassment that helped destroy Napoleon’s Grand Armee. Their reputation inspired fear in their enemies and won many a fight even before the Cossacks voiced their deafening war cries. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Light_Austrian_1st_Hussars \n\nLike other light cavalrymen, hussars have speed, “dash” and an elitist attitude towards their enemies. The 1st Hussars are, without exception, superb horsemen, and all have a certain independence of spirit that makes them ideal for chasing down widely scattered men. They carry curved sabres and, even though their charge is a powerful attack, they are weak when pitted against infantry in square and against heavy cavalry units.\n\nAustria had raised units of irregular Magyar horsemen called “huszarok” in the mid-15th Century, and they had fought bravely for Matthias Corvinus, Duke of Austria and the King of Hungary and Croatia, but it was not until the 1680s that regular hussar regiments were formed. Having proved their utility in Austrian service, other nations soon added hussars to their own armies and enthusiastically adopted hussar uniform as a fashion statement for cavalrymen. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Light_Austrian_Hungarian_Hussars \n\nLike other light cavalrymen, hussars have speed, “dash”, and an elitist attitude towards enemies. Hungarian hussars are, without exception, superb equestrians, as might be expected for a Magyar force. Their organisational origin as irregular forces, reputedly recruited from brigands and bandits, gives them a certain independence of spirit and makes them ideal for chasing down skirmishers and dealing with artillery units. They carry a curved sabre and, even though their charge is effective, they are still weak against infantry formed in square.\n\nHistorically, Austria had raised units of irregular Magyar horsemen called “huszarok” as far back as the mid-15th Century. They had fought bravely for Matthias Corvinus, the King of Hungary and Croatia and Duke of Austria, but it was not until the 1680s that regular hussar regiments were formed. Having proved their utility in Austrian service, other nations soon copied the ideas and hussars to their own armies. Many enthusiastically adopted hussar uniform as a fashion statement for cavalrymen. In some armies, hussar uniforms grew ever more gaudy, exaggerated, and rather lewdly suggestive in the cut of their very tight breeches! False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Light_Bedouin_Camel_Warriors \n\nLiving in a desert makes a man tough and ruthless, or dead. The weak do not survive, and this fierce life produces proud and dangerous warriors. Their battle skills have been honed by years of raiding, goat thievery and fighting against the more settled people of oasis villages. The smell of camels riding into battle terrifies horses, giving these Bedouin warriors the edge over European cavalry. However, should they meet European elite infantry their weakness becomes apparent as their cumbersome steeds make excellent targets.\n\nTraditionally, the name Bedouin is derived from the Arabic word ‘Bedu’ meaning ‘inhabitant of the desert.’ The Bedouin were among the most dangerous of desert tribes, fighting among themselves when outsiders weren’t available. Constantly on the move to find new pastures for their livestock, the Bedouin learned to live with the minimum of possessions and external support in the harshest of conditions. Loyalty to tribe and family was all that helped a man survive. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Light_British_15th_Hussars \n\nLike other light cavalrymen, hussars have speed, “dash” and an elitist attitude towards enemies. The 15th Hussars are made up of veteran cavalrymen, deadly in close combat and at the charge. Their speed makes them ideal for chasing down skirmishers and for dealing with artillery units. They carry curved sabres and, even though their charge is powerful, they are still at a disadvantage against infantry in square and heavy cavalry units.\n\nThe 15th Hussars were changed from light dragoon regiments as hussar regiments became fashionable across Europe. Colonel George Augustus Elliot raised “Elliot’s Light Horse”, a regiment of light dragoons. Less than a year after being raised the regiment was already 684 men strong and was marked out for overseas service. They took part in the Battle of Emsdorf, where they earned the very first named Battle Honour ever given to a British regiment. Eventually, the regiment became the 15th Hussars. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Light_British_KGL_Light_Dragoons \n\nFast moving and highly skilled, these light dragoons are a useful and versatile unit. Their true skill lies in horsemanship, although they need to dismount to use their carbines. Their flexibility in battle makes them ideal for use against artillery and skirmishers. However, should they find themselves facing well-disciplined line infantry in square their weaknesses will swiftly become apparent.\n\nHistorically, the dragoons and the light dragoons of the Kings German Legion were quartered in Weymouth, on south coast of England, along with two horse artillery batteries. The barracks were often visited by King George III and the men were his particular favourites. He would walk among the men as he oversaw drill, discussing news of home in Germany and joking with them. He even took to wearing the uniform of the dragoons during his visits. The practice of visiting the men of the Kings German Legion didn’t die with George III; the then-Prince of Wales and other members of the Royal family continued this tradition for years to come. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Light_French_5e_Hussards \n\nThese veterans of the American War of Independence possess hard-earned battle experience. Light and fast, they can quickly reach areas of the battlefield where they are most needed, cutting down the enemy with their curved sabres. Their speed makes them especially effective against units such as artillery and skirmishers, as they can close before taking too much fire. Heavier cavalry units or line infantry in square will overmatch the Hussards, as their mounts are chosen for speed, not strength.\n\nThe 5e Regiment de Hussards has its roots in the Legion de Lauzun, which was formed in 1778 and saw action during the American War of Independence. The regiment earned itself a reputation for bravery and stoic resolve at the Battle of Yorktown where it chased down a unit of light horse commanded by the famous British commander Banastre Tarleton. The Legion de Lauzun was renamed in 1793 and became the 5e Regiment de Hussards, seeing service in several key battles of the Napoleonic Wars before eventually being disbanded in November 1815. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Light_French_Chasseurs_a_Cheval \n\nThese light cavalrymen do not hold with armour, even the sensible steel skull caps many other units favour beneath their officially-sanctioned hats and caps. Chasseurs a Cheval carry swords, carbines and pistols, but they are not expected to charge home, merely harass and pursue enemies. This makes them effective against skirmishers and artillery. Their horses have good endurance, are fast and properly looked after: a cavalryman without his horse is useless. They are vulnerable when matched against heavier cavalry and well-trained infantry in square.\n\nHistorically, the Chasseurs a Cheval were given the impressive nickname of ‘Invincibles’ by Napoleon. The men of this regiment were veterans from the Guides a Cheval, a regiment created to guard Napoleon’s headquarters when he was on campaign in Italy. The Chasseurs went on to act as a personal escort to Napoleon, following him everywhere. So deep was Napoleon’s respect for this unit and its men that he regularly chose to appear in public sporting their green undress uniform. This affectation also suited his sense of theatre and emphasised his common touch with the ordinary soldiers. False
unit_description_texts_long_description_text_Cav_Light_Hussars \n\nThese superb horsemen can be used as a screen for the main army, or for strategic scouting to locate the enemy. Hussar speed makes them ideal for targeting skirmishers and artillery: enemies have little chance to escape if hussars are sent against them. Hussars are armed with curved sabres, and can acquit themselves well in melee or during a charge, although they do not fare well against disciplined infantry or heavy cavalry.\n\nHistorically, hussars of all nations enjoyed the freebooting attitude of the Hungarian originals, and acted independently of the main army as much as they could. This was useful, because they could be sent out to do long patrols or reconnaissance, and possibly a little plundering. Their high-spirited approach to war was matched by their popinjay uniforms, some of the gaudiest ever to have been worn into battle. Hussar arrogance, however, was well deserved: in 1806 some 500 French hussars bluffed a 6,000-strong Prussian garrison at Stettin into surrendering the fortress there. False