technologies_long_description_economy1_bottling_canning \n\nDiet-related ailments at sea can be reduced or eliminated by eating fresh food. Sealing food in airtight containers keeps it fresh; dried biscuits and bread may last longer than fruit or meat, but on their own they are not sufficient to sustain crew health or morale. Instead, bottled and canned foods can be taken aboard at the start of a journey, providing good meals for all. This technique not only preserves the food, but its goodness as well: the crew are better for eating good food, and naval upkeep costs are reduced.\n\nIn 1800 the French government, recognising the truth of “an army marches on its stomach”, offered a reward to anyone who could come up with a way of providing armies with safe food. After years of experimenting, French confectioner Nicolas Appert (1749-1841) noticed that food boiled in sealed containers only went off once air was admitted. He won the prize and put his foods into production in 1810 at the world’s first cannery. False
technologies_long_description_economy1_division_of_labour \n\nAs a society develops, its capabilities and needs grow. By dividing work into tasks, and allocating these to specific workers, a manufactory owner can develop a more effective work force. As workers specialise in their tasks, they will become faster and find ways of improving their work; this knowledge can be passed on to future workers. This result is an increase of each building’s economic output.\n\nScottish philosopher Adam Smith (1723-90) was a champion of the division of labour. He argued that any rate of production would be dramatically increased within industry if work was divided effectively. In his book “The Wealth of Nations” he called for a public education system to be put in place to teach workers the fine points of their crafts, if not much else. American author and naturalist Henry David Thoreau (1817- 1862) later criticized this idea in his book “Walden”. Thoreau thought specialisation was at the expense of traditional skills, such as farming and house-building, which were needed for true independent living. False
technologies_long_description_economy1_land_drainage \n\nLand drainage can provide new land that can be cultivated, and protect existing farmland from flooding. Marshy landscapes can be tamed, and rivers diverted to make way for productive and profitable farmland. This land reclamation and improvement gives a higher output from all farms, and provides more food.\n\nHistorically, the Dutch were experts on drainage using windmills to distribute water into high channels where it could flow away; this is hardly surprising given their country’s low-lying landscape. Of course, drainage was at the mercy of the wind, and developments in steam power in the late eighteenth century led to the technology being applied to drainage. The steam engine would pump as long as it had water and fuel. Indeed, stationary steam engines were first used to pump water out of mines in Britain, allowing miners to excavate deeper than before, but the principles of raising water were exactly the same for a land drainage scheme. False
technologies_long_description_economy1_poverty_control_laws \n\nIn order to properly aid and control the poor, a distinction must be made between the genuinely needy and the merely bone-idle and feckless. These vagrants prey on hand-outs meant for deserving locals, but suitable persuasion, such as a sound beating or prison, moves them on. Such strictures will also illustrate the advantages of honest work and act as a deterrent to anyone else looking to evade their duty of work. The feckless, being made to work, can add to the productivity of a region.\n\nHistorically, in many countries poor relief was closely regulated: the poor were “impotent”, ”able-bodied”, or ”idle”. Local government, being sensitive to local needs, distinguished between each type, and also decided on who needed moving on to another locale. Whereas the infirm and elderly could not earn a living wage, there were some who were happy to leech off the goodwill of charitable parishes. For the ”able-bodied” who couldn’t find work, there was also the workhouse. These institutions were made deliberately unpleasant to discourage the poor from viewing them as an easy alternative to finding work for themselves. False
technologies_long_description_economy2_joint_stock_company \n\nJoint stock companies allow a business to raise money quickly. The people who provide the money have shares in any subsequent profits and own the enterprise even if they do not manage it. They can sell their stake in the company as they see fit, for whatever price they can get, so creating a stock market. Shareholder investment reduces the construction cost of industrial and mining buildings, and boosts the growth of national wealth.\n\nHistorically, joint stock companies are the basis of a capitalist economic system, but have always had dire results for some investors. The easy profits to be made in trading stocks and shares encourage rampant speculation that may be entirely unconnected to the actual value of what is being traded. Stocks have also been “talked up” and sold unfairly by unscrupulous investors. The South Sea Bubble of 1711 in Britain and the Mississippi Company Bubble of 1721 in France both resulted from what would, today, be termed criminal insider dealing and insanely greedy speculation by too many eager “marks”. However, when used honestly, the stocks-and-shares system remains a fine way of raising capital to do business while compensating those whose money is at risk. False
technologies_long_description_economy2_plateways \n\nWith industry comes the demand for materials and fuels to sustain it, and the need for improved transport to carry them. One answer lies in putting carts on cast iron channels called plateways, laid out as tracks that guide the vehicles. These sturdy plateways are laid on level routes as far as possible, allowing horses to pull heavy loads for great distances. Plateways make mining and industry more efficient by delivering bulk raw materials.\n\nHistorically, movement of iron ore and coal without using rivers or canals was costly and slow. Horse-drawn wagons ran along wooden rails, but these regularly broke under the strain. Cast iron provided the answer in the form of L-shaped iron rails; the upright guided the cart wheels. This system worked well enough, but the carts were easily derailed by stones. This was not an uncommon problem when iron ore and other stony products were being carried. The weight of carts could also crack the cast iron used. Both these problems were solved by the introduction of wrought iron rails, but the concept of a plateway is a direct ancestor of the modern rail network. False
technologies_long_description_economy2_steam_engine \n\nThe application of reliable and controllable sources of power allows industry to produce goods at a tremendous rate. Work is no longer tied to the force of a convenient river, reliant on the wind or limited by a man’s muscles. Progress and industry, simply, are no longer subject to Nature’s whims! The steam engine unleashes power wherever it is needed, leading to an accelerated growth of industrial production.\n\nExperiments with steam power can be traced all the way through history, as far back as the ancient Greeks and the Aeolipile. However, it was the atmospheric beam engine of Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729) that first used steam effectively and signalled a new age of industry. His design was later improved by James Watt (1736-1819). The more fuel-efficient, and thus cheaper to run, Watt Steam Engine provided power to run factories, pump water, and eventually propel all manner of vehicles. False
technologies_long_description_economy3_interchangeable_parts \n\nMany devices are hand-built by craftsmen to extremely high standards, but this brings its own problems. If a designed component doesn’t fit into a machine, it can be carefully worked until it does; in itself, this is no bad thing, but the altered piece may not now fit into an apparently identical mechanism.\n\nBy making identical parts within a fine tolerance, identical machines can be built from any mixture of those parts. Work can be divided up amongst craftsmen, and broken parts can be replaced easily, even by a user! This is particularly useful for the military, as muskets and other equipment can be quickly repaired in the field rather than being thrown away or expensively rebuilt.\n\nThis advance became widely known about thanks to American inventor Eli Whitney (1765-1825). He built ten muskets in front of a US Congressional committee, took them to pieces, mixed up the parts, and rebuilt the muskets. The act was impressive, but he had cheated by having all his demonstration pieces carefully handcrafted to extremely exacting standards. He was largely copying the ideas of Frenchman Honore Blanc. False
technologies_long_description_economy3_limited_liability_company \n\nTrade and enterprise are among the building blocks of any fledgling empire, and therefore any business is to be encouraged and aided. The shareholders in a limited liability company are not held personally accountable for any company debts. They are not expected to use any more of their own money, beyond what they paid for their shares, to honour the company’s commitments. Shareholders face less risk as a result, and this not only increases the wealth of a nation, but also its gross national product.\n\nWhen the Act of Limited Liability was passed in the United Kingdom in 1855 it was met with some scepticism. The public feared that companies would be free to act irresponsibly because their owner could walk away from the financial consequences. To prevent this, shares were only partly paid to begin with so that in the event of company bankruptcy shareholders would still have to pay the balance for shares in a worthless enterprise. However, as only the already wealthy could afford the risk, this approach was soon abandoned, and business boomed. False
technologies_long_description_economy3_screw_propeller \n\nUnlike a paddlewheel, a screw propeller is entirely underwater, and is largely invulnerable to enemy fire as a result. However, it does add to the draft of a ship, so a pilot must have his wits about him in shallow water. The mechanism is, however, far more efficient than any combination of paddlewheels (either stern or side), and can drive a ship at much higher speed for a given engine size.\n\nHistorically, the screw propeller had its origins in Archimedes’ Screw, an ancient method of lifting water to a higher level. The screw’s potential for propulsion was recognised early on, but not actually implemented. It required steam power, coupled with further refinements to the shape of the screw propeller, to finally see it adopted instead of paddle wheels. British engineer Francis Pettit Smith (1808-1874) accidentally discovered that smaller propellers work better than big ones. During one of his many tests, a piece of his screw propeller snapped off, and he noticed that, rather than grinding to a halt, the ship actually accelerated. False
technologies_long_description_economy3_steam_locomotive \n\nA stationary steam engine can be used to haul loads along a track by means of ropes or chains, but it is much more convenient for the engine to move with the train. Plateways and railways are not new ideas, but the application of mobile steam power is a revolution. Railways linking mines, ports, and cities make the world smaller, but also give men of business unparalleled opportunities for trade, so allowing increased industrial expansion.\n\nHistorically, steam engines were a wonder of the age when they were introduced to public service, despite the fact that the first day of the first passenger railway in the world resulted in the death of an important local politician. In 1830, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway held a grand celebration. William Huskisson, the Liverpool Member of Parliament, dithered when a train approached at speed, and was run down. His leg was severed, and it took the unfortunate fellow some time to die from shock and blood loss. Despite killing a well-loved worthy, the L&M was an engineering triumph and a financial success, ushering in the railway age. False
technologies_long_description_economy3_steam_ship_propulsion \n\nEngineering improvements to the steam engine have made it more efficient, and it is now suitable for use in ships. The only question is where to store the mountain of coal required to fuel the engine, a problem that limits the cruising range of ships and still requires them to have masts and sails. When the wind is right, it is more sensible to use it than burn coal.\n\nHistorically, the transition from wind-power to steam-powered vessels was slow and protracted. Apart from the need for a network of coaling ports, development of steam ship propulsion itself went through many increments and was beset by engine failures, sinking ships, bureaucracy, and false starts. Jouffroy d’Abbans (1751-1832) was one of many inventors who were almost official geniuses: in 1783, his paddle steamer, the Pyroscaphe, managed to sail for fifteen minutes down the Saone, but the French Academy of Sciences refused to acknowledge his achievement for political reasons. D’Abbans died unrecognised, bitter and impoverished. False
technologies_long_description_economy5_mass_production \n\nCraft-based manufacturing of any kind has a ceiling on the number of goods that it can produce. The goods themselves may be beautifully made, but the number of expert workers is the limitation; people can only make so many things if they are doing everything for themselves.\n\nMass production mechanises the basic and repetitive tasks of production, and divides work into simple, repetitive and repeatable tasks. No longer does a master craftsman labour to make one item from start to finish. Instead, work is broken down into simple tasks and each given to a worker with the item passing to the next person for the next task. Each job is simple, so mechanical aids and tools can be used in place of expertise.\n\nMarc Brunel (1769-1849) was a French engineer who fetched up in England after the French Revolution. His block-making machines are a typical example of mass production in the period. They let unskilled labour make the blocks and pulleys needed in their thousands by the Royal Navy ? blocks were a vital part of ship’s rigging. False
technologies_long_description_military1_carronade \n\nCarronade differ from the normal warship “long guns” by having a shortened barrel, relative to the weight of shot. Short barrels require reduced gunpowder charges; large charges would be wasted because they would not have time to burn properly. This gives a reduced muzzle velocity, less recoil, and a lighter weapon. As a further benefit, carronades require fewer gunners to fire them. There is, however, a tactical price to pay: carronades are short-range weapons. In close, but only in close, they can do fearful slaughter.\n\nHistorically, the carronade was developed by the Carron Company of Fife, Scotland. It was a huge success initially, as the weight of shot more than made up for its short range: 68-pounder carronades were quite easily carried aboard even small ships. HMS Victory carried 68-pounder carronades as part of her armament: one raking round shot and a load of 500 musket balls did terrible slaughter on the gun deck of the Bucentaure at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. False
technologies_long_description_military1_conscription \n\nThis provides an enormous pool of recruits, and makes the business of building an army much simpler and cheaper: if a thousand men are needed for a regiment, they can be found instantly! The negative consequences are that conscripted soldiers are not reliable or particularly well trained: they do not want to be in the army, learn how to use a gun, or be in a battle. They want to go home in one piece. They cannot be expected to hold to the same standards of discipline as volunteers or regular soldiers.\n\nRevolutionary France was the first nation to introduce conscription, with the "Jourdan Law" of 1798. All men aged 20-25 were liable for service, but there were many exceptions. Clergymen, some essential workers and public office holders did not have to report, and it was possible to pay someone else to go in your place. This last clause effectively made conscription fall heavily on the poor and peasant classes. Ironically, General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, the man who created the system that saved Revolutionary France, had been forced out of the army because his moderate views made the Committee of Public Safety suspicious of his loyalties. False
technologies_long_description_military1_diamond_formation \n\nA diamond formation, as the name suggests, is a way of employing all the men of a cavalry unit to best effect. Rather than being arranged as a simple wedge, point towards the enemy, the unit tapers off from its broadest point. Even though the riders may be knee-to-knee to maximise the shock of impact should a charge connect with a target, a diamond-formed unit can change direction quickly. This is not true with the earlier cavalry wedge, the members of which find any kind of wheeling turn difficult to execute.\n\nHistorically, the Swedes were among the leaders in European cavalry tactics at the start of the 18th Century; King Charles XII was all in favour of closely packed, large cavalry formations as he believed that these could break the enemy by fear alone. There was debate among military men in other nations too: in Britain the Duke of Marlborough favoured his cavalry charging home with cold steel, rather than relying on fear or bullets to do their terrible work. False
technologies_long_description_military1_fire_and_advance \n\nWhen using this tactic, infantry units do not move forward as a single block. Instead, groups take it in turn to advance towards the enemy, halt, and fire. While one group is firing, others are advancing or loading for another volley. Good discipline and weapons drill are also required, so that the stationary companies will always be ready to give fire when needed. The evolution requires a great deal of coordination by officers and sergeants, and faith in their fellows by the men.\n\nFire and advance remains in use today as a method of advance known as “bounding overwatch”, a particularly useful technique for armoured units where tanks give each other covering fire. The first unit moves into a predetermined position and becomes the “overwatching unit”; these tend to be in cover to provide the stationary unit with protection as it covers the bounding unit. In addition, armoured vehicles being able to fire on the move with gyro-stabilised weapons has made “fire and advance” mean exactly that. False
technologies_long_description_military1_improved_coppering \n\nBy fastening thin copper sheets over the timbers below the waterline, weeds and worms are kept at bay. The ship lasts longer because its bottom is not eaten away, and is faster by not being fouled. Upkeep costs are reduced, and handling improved. Coppering is not cheap, though, as it requires substantial work in the shipyard during construction.\n\nHistorically, coppering ships was not immediately accepted by the Royal Navy. The Admiralty were put off by the high cost of the copper; a second problem was that coppering actually seemed to make the rotting of ships’ hulls worse, not better. This was the result of an unexpected reaction between seawater, the copper sheets and the iron bolts used to hold them in place. These became, in effect, a large battery, and the iron bolts were eaten away by the chemical reaction, resulting in the hull falling to bits. Once iron was no longer used, “copper bottomed” became a mark of approval: something so (financially) sound it could not possibly fail. Coppering remained in use until the development of modern anti-fouling paints. False
technologies_long_description_military2_army_corps_organisation \n\nA corps structure introduces an extra level of command, aiding a commanding general by, counter-intuitively, giving him fewer direct subordinates. Rather than dealing with dozens of regimental commanders directly, a general issues his orders to his corps commanders. The general is then free from the burden of dealing with many people, and can concentrate on the overall situation. Each corps operates as an army in miniature, looking after its own supplies and marching routes. One immediately noticeable effect is an improvement in movement rates for armies, because individual units can now be coordinated in detail.\n\nThe corps structure, grouping together army divisions, was not new in the Napoleonic era, but again Napoleon’s genius was to take an existing concept and gain the maximum benefit. Following the Revolutionary War, divisions in the French army were organised into temporary groups known as “wings”. Command of a wing was temporary, and on top of a divisional general’s responsibilities. A sensible evolution of the idea was to make the “Corps D'Armee” a permanent formation, with its own staff and permanent commanding officer. Each corps usually had at least two infantry divisions with their own artillery, a corps artillery reserve, and at least a brigade of cavalry. False
technologies_long_description_military2_grand_battery \n\nThe Grand Battery is an artillery tactic which involves amassing all available artillery into one huge battery and then concentrating its fire on a single point in the enemy line. The concentrated fire also makes for a devastating attack that can blast through enemy lines and structures. The massed nature of this fire given improves the accuracy and effectiveness of artillery units in battle.\n\nIn reality, the Grand Battery was an ingenious new tactic that, for a while, gave Napoleon the edge over his enemies. At Wagram and Borodino it was used, respectively, to break an enemy line in the centre and repel an enemy counter attack. As with all ingenious tactics, there was an ingenious counter attack: Wellington and other generals started deploying their troops well out of range of any grand battery. Wellington employed this tactic to great effect at the Battle of Waterloo, deploying his men safely out of range and just to be sure, on the reverse slope of a hill, hiding them from any direct fire. False
technologies_long_description_military2_logistics \n\nA supply system can aid in making sure that the attrition inevitably suffered by military units in hostile lands is reduced: soldiers who are properly supplied with all their necessaries are less likely to die or desert. The same system that can deliver a musket or a barrel of gunpowder to the front can also be used to send replacement soldiers forward as well.\n\nBefore gunpowder, armies could support themselves entirely by pillaging, even if this did ruin any land they crossed. This changed with the introduction of gunpowder, as it could rarely be stolen, and could not be manufactured on the march; a transportation system and supply dumps became absolutely vital.\n\nThe writings of Antoine-Henri Jomini, a Frenchman and eventually a Russian general officer, did much to advance the understanding of logistics, the art of military supply. His career included training to be a banker, and time working for an arms manufacturer, but his skills came to the fore when he was a secretary in the Swiss Ministry of War, in charge of reorganising the way the business of war was conducted. This gave him the grounding he needed for his organisational and supply work. False
technologies_long_description_military2_mass_mobilisation \n\nMass mobilisation is the social and political theory that claims that the general public can be inspired to fight for a country or for nebulous ideals such as “freedom”. When men go willingly to war they can be persuaded to suffer hardships beyond those of regular soldiering: overcoming a lack of supplies, food and arms are part of the struggle. Belief is a powerful tool in battle: men will stand for an idea, even in the face of death. Mobilisation reduces the recruitment costs for militia units.\n\n Historically, the French Revolution was the first example of mass mobilisation, even if it was not referred to as such at the time. The people were harnessed to the ideals of the revolution, and willing to undergo hardships in its name. As these ideals were threatened by foreign monarchies, the people could be easily roused to defend them. Patriotic and revolutionary fervour was encouraged by the government to great practical effect; by 1799 more than one million men had shown themselves willing to fight for France and the Revolution. False
technologies_long_description_military2_top_gallants \n\nAll sailing ships rely on the wind for motive power. The only practical way to make a better speed through the water at a particular wind velocity is to put on more sail. Each mast is designed to take a main sail and a topsail, but it is possible with top gallants to add an extra sail above the topsail. Naturally, this requires more yards, ropes and skilled sailors to set the sails. Adding a top gallant is also something of a strain on the fabric of the ship: the extra strain on a mast can, in high winds, rip it right out of a hull. This catastrophic damage to the whole ship can also cause casualties among the crew.\n\nThe speed and handling of a ship can also be improved by careening the hull: a process that takes days. This, however, is not something that will instantly give more speed, unlike setting the topgallants. False
technologies_long_description_military3_carcass_shot \n\nThe shells are made by pouring an unpleasant cocktail of turpentine, tallow, resin, saltpetre, and sulphur and antimony compounds into a canvas sack, which is supported by iron interlocking hoops. The mixture hardens, and the shot can then be fired from mortars and howitzers. A weapon with a low muzzle velocity is required, otherwise the canvas rips apart and the crew are showered with the burning contents of the carcass. The hoops hopefully prevent the shot from bursting as it leaves the barrel, setting the users on fire rather than the target.\n\nIn theory, the mixture should burn for a few minutes when the shot bursts on impact, and be incredibly difficult to extinguish. Certainly, dousing the flames with water will have little effect. This makes carcass shot particularly useful against defensive positions, and an extremely unpleasant weapon when used against troops in the open. False
technologies_long_description_military3_conscript_infantry_tactics \n\nAs the recruitment process for modern armies changes, tactics need to be re-evaluated and altered. Previously, armies had been made up of sometimes-willing volunteers, who were well trained and fiercely disciplined. Conscription provides a new challenge for military tacticians: how best to deploy an army to prevent desertion and give men no choice but to fight. Once these new infantry tactics have been researched and developed, new military academies can be constructed to spread these radical ideas.\n\n Conscript infantry tactics owe their creation, in theory at least, to the French general Count Jacques-Antonine-Hippolyte de Guibert (1743-1790). He was a controversial tactical writer who published his “Essai general de tactique” in 1770 and was notorious for his advanced social opinions. He had been discussing the finer points of mass conscription (which became known as “levee en masse”) long before it became the French military system. He briefly held the position of chief military advisor to the French government but it was soon apparent that the government was not ready for his brand of radical thinking. False
technologies_long_description_military3_field_ambulances \n\n Field ambulances are fast carts that can be driven into the thick of battle. Stocked with water, bandages, and other medical supplies they allow some treatment to be given immediately. More importantly, the wounded can be carried to the rear where a surgeon can give much needed medical attention. Surgery, however, remains close to butchery. Being able to provide this swift assistance means that the replenishment rate of units is improved.\n\n Historically, ambulances in their basic form have been around for centuries, Roman centurions were followed into battle by teams of strong men who would retrieve the wounded or dying. However, it was not until the Napoleonic Wars that the term “ambulance” was first used. The chief physician to Napoleon, Baron Jean Dominique Larrey (1766 ? 1842) introduced a contraption he called the “ambulances volantes”. Outraged by the fact that the wounded and dying were not collected until after a battle, he adapted horse artillery caissons to carry the wounded for treatment at high speed. He eventually developed two varieties of carts that could be taken onto the battlefield to retrieve and treat injured soldiers. False
technologies_long_description_military3_standardised_artillery \n\nBy using common parts to make many different cannons, such as wheels and gun carriages, it makes manufacturing easier and makes the job of an artilleryman easier too. Field repairs can be made by taking usable parts from a destroyed weapon to repair a damaged one. A single serviceable weapon may be created from the wreckage of a number of other guns.\n\nIn 1764, French artillery officer Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval created a system of standardisation of mass produced gun parts that came to be known as ‘Le systeme Gribeauval’. He improved cannon carriages, and improved the basic manufacturing of guns so that pieces became smaller and lighter for a given calibre.\n\nIt was Napoleon’s ability to use the existing systems of the French army to full effect that made it such an effective fighting force. Bonaparte was, of course, trained as an artilleryman before he was a general officer. False
technologies_long_description_military4_general_staff \n\nWithout paperwork, clerks and administrators, armies cannot function. Field commanders also need assistance in drafting orders, collating intelligence of the enemy and in making sure that men are properly supplied and fed. A general staff is made up of relatively junior, but trusted officers who can act as the eyes and ears of their general and, when occasion calls for it, make sure his orders are delivered in a clear and prompt fashion. With a general staff to deal with administration, a force can move with more despatch and not waste valuable time.\n\nHistorically, Napoleon Bonaparte made full use of various generals, favourite officers, confidential secretaries and the like to assist him. Louis Alexandre Berthier (1753-1815) was Napoleon’s Chief of Staff, and highly favoured by the emperor because of his diligence in making sure orders were obeyed. After Napoleon’s abdication in 1814, Berthier made his peace with the new King Louis XVIII. He then refused to join Napoleon on his return to Paris in 1815, and Napoleon saw Berthier’s absence as one of the reasons for his defeat at Waterloo. False
technologies_long_description_military4_modern_rifles \n\nRifles must be used by specialists to achieve effectiveness on the battlefield; this is why they are usually only issued to specially-selected and highly-trained units of skirmishers. The difference between a rifle and a smoothbore musket is in the grooves cut into the barrel: these give a spin to the ball as it is fired, making it more accurate over long ranges. However, loading a shot requires care and attention in battle, and a rifle needs care and attention to keep it clean and properly adjusted after a fight.\n\nIn 1800, the British Army established the Experimental Corps of Rifles in Horsham, Sussex. Selected men were drafted from various regiments and trained to think independently as well as fight as skirmishers. They were equipped with Ezekiel Baker’s flintlock rifle, a splendidly accurate weapon. It was not unknown for riflemen to hold targets for each other, a demonstration that would have been suicidal and stupid if the firer had been using a standard Brown Bess musket. Clad in green uniforms, Rifles, as the Baker-armed soldiers were soon called, were justly respected. False
technologies_long_description_military4_quicklime \n\nQuicklime is a dangerous, caustic product that gets very, very hot when it is slaked with water. It does have entirely innocent uses: plaster, mortar and whitewash for buildings, and in glass making; but as a weapon it is frightening indeed. The smallest amount will cause painful, even fatal, burns on exposed flesh. The eyes are especially vulnerable because they are moist with tears. Quicklime shells carry an explosive charge so as to burst above enemy lines, but they are still dangerous to the gunners using them.\n\nHistorically, quicklime had a long history of use in warfare, dating back to Classical antiquity. This did not make it an acceptable weapon in the eyes of many military gentlemen who, quite rightly, realised that what could be used against the enemy could also be used against them. Further, like all chemical weapons, it was entirely dependent on the wind to send the caustic agent in the right direction once released. It was true that, short of running away, there was no practical defence against perfidious and odious chemical weapons. False
technologies_long_description_military4_uniform_armament \n\nA warship’s effectiveness can be measured by the weight of shot it fires in its broadside, and it makes excellent sense to have the heaviest cannons possible on board. However, too many different sizes of gun can make ammunition supply in the heat of battle more complicated than it need be, and different guns have different loading speeds, ballistic characteristics and crewing needs. By settling on only one size of gun, all these issues are resolved. An added bonus is that crewmen can be reassigned as needed to man guns, without necessarily needing any new instruction in their duties.\n\nNaval architect Sir Robert Seppings (1767-1840) introduced a remodelled and sturdier design for ships that incorporated a diagonal iron cross-bracing that greatly improved hull strength. Hulls built to his conception were stiffer, more seaworthy and able to accommodate a large number of heavy cannon on every deck. In 1826, the British Royal Navy took advantage of his new ideas and armed new ships with only one type of cannons: a formidably heavy 32-pounder! False
technologies_long_description_military5_iron_plating \n\nAs guns have grown in calibre and fire a variety of explosive shells, wooden warships have become increasingly vulnerable. Iron plates are the response, bolted to the thick timbers of a conventional wooden warship’s hull. The timbers are still part of the defences of the ship, helping to absorb the impact of any hits. The wrought iron plating is immensely thick and heavy, with a consequent effect on the handling qualities of any “iron-clad” vessel. Cast iron, being inherently brittle, is entirely useless as a protective device.\n\nHistorically, iron-plated ships were not “ironclads” in that they did not always have the entirely iron construction, armour plating, and steam propulsion that defined those vessels. Some wooden ships-of-the-line were skinned with iron plates, but it was not an entirely successful experiment. More successful were the floating batteries that carried iron plating as armour: these were shallow draft platforms that were intended to maximise firepower. All other considerations, such as sailing characteristics, were secondary. Used for bombardments or for defence in restricted waters, such batteries were formidable; at sea they were a menace to their crews. False
technologies_long_description_military5_percussion_cap \n\nA flintlock makes a spark in an open pan; this then igniting the gunpowder to fire a musket. A percussion lock uses tiny amounts of chemicals called fulminates to create the spark needed. Fulminates explode when hit; there is no flint to come loose and no powder to become soaked in the rain. Instead a small copper cap is fitted onto the end of a tube that leads into the gun barrel; when struck by the lock’s hammer, the gun fires, even in damp weather.\n\nThe percussion cap was the invention of a Scottish clergyman, Alexander John Forsyth (1769-1843), who was looking for a solution to a hunting problem. The flintlock’s “flash in the pan” before the main charge fired alerted birds that they were about to be shot, causing them to fly away in a deucedly unsporting fashion. His clever idea to use a small ignition charge of fulminate of mercury gave him an invisible spark that didn’t warn his feathered targets! False
technologies_long_description_military5_rifled_cannons \n\nOrdinary naval cannons are smoothbore weapons, meaning that the barrel is a simple tube to contain the explosion. The limitations of casting mean that cannons are quite crude and windage, the gap between barrel and shot, is always a problem. A shot often “rattles” down the barrel when fired, making it inherently inaccurate. The loss of accuracy with a smoothbore makes its maximum range of academic interest only, simply because it becomes a matter of luck rather than judgement to hit anything far away!\n\nA rifled cannon solves these problems. By using machines to bore out the barrel from a blank casting, one inaccuracy is removed. Another machine cuts a helical pattern of grooves into the barrel wall. This imparts a spin to any shot as it travels down the barrel, and a spinning projectile flies true. This makes the effective range of a rifled cannon shot much greater than one from a smoothbore, although the maximum range for both is similar.\n\nHistorically, rifled cannons used manufacturing techniques developed for making accurate steam pistons and cylinders. False
technologies_long_description_military5_rockets \n\nA war rocket is an iron cylinder, packed with gunpowder, with a long wooden stick as a tail. It functions in much the same way as a firework, but with infinitely deadlier consequences. Launched from angled troughs or stands, rockets are not particular accurate. This does not matter when they are fired in large numbers, and their morale effect should not be underestimated. They may also have an incendiary effect on a target. Rockets are weapons for specialists, and so this technology allows the recruitment of rocket units.\n\nHistorically, rocketry had long been used in Indian and Asian warfare, as the British discovered during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. The British, ready as always to adopt foreign ideas when it suited, soon had their own version of rockets thanks to Colonel William Congreve (1722-1828). The Congreve Rocket was introduced to British artillery in 1805 and used to intimidate the enemy and spread fire and panic amongst them. A battery of Congreve Rockets was present at Waterloo in 1815, the final epic battle of the Napoleonic period. False
technologies_onscreen_name_admin1_classical_economics Classical Economics False
technologies_onscreen_name_admin1_national_debt National Debt False
technologies_onscreen_name_admin1_public_schooling Public Schooling False
technologies_onscreen_name_admin2_national_census National Census False
technologies_onscreen_name_admin3_abolition_of_slavery Abolition of Slavery False
technologies_onscreen_name_admin3_code_napoleon Code Napoleon False
technologies_onscreen_name_admin3_metric_system Metric System False
technologies_onscreen_name_admin3_trade_unions Trade Unions False
technologies_onscreen_name_admin4_dialectics Dialectics False
technologies_onscreen_name_admin4_semaphore_lines Semaphore Lines False
technologies_onscreen_name_admin5_national_propaganda National Propaganda False
technologies_onscreen_name_admin5_passports Passports False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy1_bottling_canning Bottling and Canning False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy1_division_of_labour Division of Labour False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy1_land_drainage Land Drainage False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy1_poverty_control_laws Poverty Control Laws False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy2_joint_stock_company Joint Stock Company False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy2_plateways Plateways False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy2_steam_engine Steam Engine False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy3_interchangeable_parts Interchangeable Parts False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy3_limited_liability_company Limited Liability Company False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy3_screw_propeller Screw Propeller False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy3_steam_locomotive Steam Locomotive False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy3_steam_ship_propulsion Steam Ship Propulsion False
technologies_onscreen_name_economy5_mass_production Mass Production False
technologies_onscreen_name_military1_carronade Carronade False
technologies_onscreen_name_military1_conscription Conscription False
technologies_onscreen_name_military1_diamond_formation Diamond Formation False
technologies_onscreen_name_military1_fire_and_advance Fire and Advance False
technologies_onscreen_name_military1_improved_coppering Improved Coppering False
technologies_onscreen_name_military2_army_corps_organisation Army Corps Organisation False
technologies_onscreen_name_military2_grand_battery Grand Battery False
technologies_onscreen_name_military2_logistics Logistics False
technologies_onscreen_name_military2_mass_mobilisation Mass Mobilisation False
technologies_onscreen_name_military2_top_gallants Top Gallants False
technologies_onscreen_name_military3_carcass_shot Carcass Shot False
technologies_onscreen_name_military3_conscript_infantry_tactics Conscript Infantry Tactics False
technologies_onscreen_name_military3_field_ambulances Field Ambulances False
technologies_onscreen_name_military3_standardised_artillery Standardised Artillery False
technologies_onscreen_name_military4_general_staff General Staff False
technologies_onscreen_name_military4_modern_rifles Modern Rifles False
technologies_onscreen_name_military4_quicklime Quicklime False
technologies_onscreen_name_military4_uniform_armament Uniform Armament False
technologies_onscreen_name_military5_iron_plating Iron Plating False
technologies_onscreen_name_military5_percussion_cap Percussion Cap False
technologies_onscreen_name_military5_rifled_cannons Rifled Cannons False
technologies_onscreen_name_military5_rockets Rockets False
technologies_short_description_admin1_classical_economics An attempt to understand, explore and explain economic growth and development. False
technologies_short_description_admin1_national_debt National debt increases wealth growth and reduces the upkeep cost of units. False
technologies_short_description_admin1_public_schooling Public schools allow the people to make full use of their wits by making education widely available. False
technologies_short_description_admin2_national_census Counting people, their property and servants allows a government to know exactly what it can tax. False
technologies_short_description_admin3_abolition_of_slavery The abolition of slavery removes the right of one man to own another, and outlaws any trade in human beings as property. False
technologies_short_description_admin3_code_napoleon This systematic overhaul of the law aims to create a fair and equal framework for the people to live under. False
technologies_short_description_admin3_metric_system A metric system standardises all weights and measures, and attempts to link them into a coherent whole. False
technologies_short_description_admin3_trade_unions The working classes often have to fight for their rights, sometimes even their right to earn enough to live. False
technologies_short_description_admin4_dialectics This new philosophical method of argument and counter-argument allows the exploration of many important ideas and questions. False
technologies_short_description_admin4_semaphore_lines Semaphore lines are a chain of signalling stations, using elaborate codes to pass on timely information. False
technologies_short_description_admin5_national_propaganda Telling people “the truth” unifies the nation and raises morale. False
technologies_short_description_admin5_passports A passport allows the bearer to move freely across borders and through internal barriers. False
technologies_short_description_economy1_bottling_canning Bottling and canning prevents food spoiling, a problem on ocean voyages where fresh food is unavailable. False
technologies_short_description_economy1_division_of_labour The division of labour creates a more skilled and organised work force by making workers specialise in only one task. False
technologies_short_description_economy1_land_drainage Draining marshy and low-lying land for agricultural purposes improves soil and crop yields for all farming. False
technologies_short_description_economy1_poverty_control_laws These laws help control any poverty problem by making being poor and destitute a crime. False
technologies_short_description_economy2_joint_stock_company A joint stock company is owned and capitalised by many people, who can trade their stake in the company. False
technologies_short_description_economy2_plateways Plateways are iron tracks that allow more efficient transportation of ore or coal, increasing a mine’s output. False